Content (Issue 2017-3)

Saturday, November 11th, 2017

ԲՈՎԱՆԴԱԿՈՒԹՅՈՒՆ

ԽՄԲԱԳՐԱԿԱՆ
ՀԱՅԱՍՏԱՆ-ՔՐԴՍՏԱՆ. ԲԱՆՏԱՐԿՎԱԾ ՀԱՐԵՎԱՆՈՒԹՅՈՒՆ

ՀԻՄՆԱՔԱՐԵՐ
Սիրանուշ Գ. Հովհաննիսյան
ԲԱՐՈՅԱԿԱՆՈՒԹՅՈՒՆԸ ՈՐՊԵՍ ՄՇԱԿՈՒՅԹԻ ՆԱԽԱԴՐՅԱԼ

ՊԱՏՄՈՒԹՅՈՒՆ
Սամվել Ա. Պողոսյան
ԱԼԵՔՍԱՆԴՐԵՏՈՒՄ ԱՆՏԱՆՏԻ ԶՈՐՔԵՐԻ ԱՓՀԱՆՄԱՆ ԽՆԴԻՐԸ (1914 թ. սեպտեմբեր – 1915 թ. մարտ)

ՊԱՏՄՈՒԹՅԱՆ ՏԵՍՈՒԹՅՈՒՆ
Գևորգ Ս. Խուդինյան
ՔՐԴԵՐԸ ԵՎ ՀԱՄԱՇԽԱՐՀԱՅԻՆ ՊԱՏՄՈՒԹՅՈՒՆԸ՝Աբդուլլահ Օջալանի երկերի հինգ հատորներում

ԳՐԱԿԱՆԱԳԻՏՈՒԹՅՈՒՆ
Նելլի Ա. Թադևոսյան
«ՈՒՇԱՑԱԾ» ՎԱԶԳԵՆ ՇՈՒՇԱՆՅԱՆԸ՝
«Հեթանոսական» շարժման մատույցներում

Գրիգոր Կ. Շաշիկյան
ԺԱՆՐԻ ՁԵՎԱՓՈԽՄԱՆ ԽՆԴԻՐԸ
Աղասի Այվազյանի «Օբյեկտիվ -18» գրքում

ԼԵԶՎԱԲԱՆՈՒԹՅՈՒՆ
Վարդան Զ. Պետրոսյան
ՀԻՆ ՀԱՅԵՐԵՆԻ Լ (L) ԵՎ Ղ (Ł) ՁԱՅՆՈՐԴՆԵՐԻ ԾԱԳՈՒՄԸ ԵՎ ՀՆՉԱԲԱՆԱԿԱՆ ԱՐԺԵՔԱՅՆՈՒԹՅՈՒՆԸ
Տարաժամանակյա հայեցակերպ

Բագրատ Ս. Ներսիսյան
Կարինե Ժ. Սահակյան
ՅՈԹ ՀՈԼՈՎԻ ՏԵՍՈՒԹՅՈՒՆԸ ՀԻՄՆԱՎՈՐԵԼՈՒ ՆՈՐ ՄԵԹՈԴ

ՀՆԱԳԻՏՈՒԹՅՈՒՆ
Արսեն Է. Հարությունյան
17-18-ՐԴ ԴԴ. ԵԿԵՂԵՑԻՆԵՐԻ ՈՐՄԵՐԻՆ ԱԳՈՒՑՎԱԾ ԽԱՉՔԱՐԵՐԸ
Հորինվածքը, գործառույթը, հիշատակագրությունը

ՄՇԱԿՈՒՅԹ
Ռուբեն Ս. Անգալադյան (Սանկտ Պետերբուրգ)
ՀՈՎՀԱՆՆԵՍ ԱՅՎԱԶՈՎՍԿԻ – ԱՇԽԱՐՀՆ ԱՍԵՍ ԾՈՎԻՑ ՓՉՈՂ ՔԱՄԻ
Ծննդյան 200-ամյակին

ՀԻՇՈՂՈՒԹՅՈՒՆ
Էդիտա Գ. Գզոյան
ԿԱՐԵՆ ԵՊՊԵՆ ԵՎ ՀԱԼԵՊԻ ՓՐԿՈՒԹՅԱՆ ՏՈՒՆԸ
Ազգերի լիգայի արխիվի փաստաթղթերում

ՔՆՆԱՐԿՈՒՄՆԵՐ
Սարգիս Ռ. Մելքոնյան,
Սամվել Ս. Մկրտչյան
ԱԼԵՔՍԱՆԴՐԻԱՅԻ 633 Թ. ԺՈՂՈՎԸ՝
Արևելահռոմեական կայսրության
միարարական նոր քաղաքականության համատեքստում

ԳԻՏԱԳՈՐԾՆԱԿԱՆ
Լիլիթ Հր. Հովհաննիսյան
ՊԵՏԱԿԱՆՈՒԹՅԱՆ ՄԱՐՏԱՀՐԱՎԵՐԸ
Մաս առաջին։ ՀՅ Դաշնակցությունը և Հայաստանի երկու մասերի քաղաքական կարգավիճակի հարցը 1917 թվականին

ԼՐԱՏՈՒ
Պետրոս Հ. Դեմիրճյան
ԳՐԱԿԱՆԱԳԻՏՈՒԹՅԱՆ ԴԱՍԱԿԱՆԸ
Սերգեյ Սարինյանի հիշատակին

ԳՐԱԽՈՍՈՒԹՅՈՒՆՆԵՐ
Ավագ Ա. Հարությունյան
ՎԱՂՈՒՑ ՍՊԱՍՎԱԾ ԱՇԽԱՏՈՒԹՅՈՒՆ
Արարատի 1926-1930 թթ. ապստամբության մասին

Քնարիկ Ա. Աբրահամեան
ՍԱՄՈՒԷԼ ՄՈՒՐԱԴԵԱՆԻ ՇԻՐԱԶԱՊԱՏՈՒՄԸ

Սերգեյ Ա. Աղաջանյան – ԴԱՎԻԹ Վ.
ՊԵՏՐՈՍՅԱՆ, ՊԱՏՈՒՄ, ՄԵԴԻԱՏԵՔՍՏ, ՀԱԿԱՌԱԿ ՀԵՌԱՆԿԱՐ 220

ԱՐԽԻՎ
Աղասի Պ. Ազիզեան
ԱՐԽԻՒԱՅԻՆ ՎԱՒԵՐԱԳՐԵՐ ՋԵՄԱԼ ՓԱՇԱՅԻ ՍՊԱՆՈՒԹԵԱՆ ՄԱՍԻՆ

ՀԱՎԵԼՎԱԾ
Արարատ Մ. Հակոբյան
1937 ԹՎԱԿԱՆԸ ՀԱՅԱՍՏԱՆՈՒՄ
Քննական դիտարկումներ քաղաքական բռնաճնշումների 80-ամյա տարելիցի
առիթով

CONTENT

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

ARMENIA AND KURDISTAN: NEIGHBORHOOD IN CUSTODY

Saturday, November 11th, 2017

Summary

ARMENIA AND KURDISTAN: NEIGHBORHOOD IN CUSTODY

Key words – Iraqi Kurdistan, Eastern Question, Armenian Question, Kurdish Question, Treaty of Sèvres, Alliance between Lenin and Ataturk, Khoyboun, Treaty of Saadabad, Abdullah Ocalan, Kurdistan Workers’ Party.

The geopolitical processes that began after the referendum of the Iraqi Kurdistan on September 25, 2017 come from both the current political calculations of separate states and the strategic goals of transforming the entire region. In order to neutralize the influence of the Russian «hammer» in the north of our region, the United States has already secured its presence in Georgia, therefore, while when forming the Iraqi Kurdistan, which casts doubt on the integrity of the Turkish «anvil», geopolitical pressure on the two geopolitical «locks» of our region begins. The first of these is based on the agreements signed by Lenin and Ataturk in 1920s. Relatively speaking, this is the «lock» put on the Armenian question, and the second one is the «lock» put on the Kurdish question, i. e. the Saadabad pact in 1930s. The first «lock» closes the future geopolitical changes in the vertical, and the second one – horizontally. And this means that, as in the past, so today, the fate of Armenians and Kurds intersect with each other, but this time not in the form of a head-on collision of mutual interests, but in the form of intersections of two neighboring geopolitical «prisons cells».
The program of fragmentation of the region is impossible without Armenia’s active participation. And in this case we do not pretend to the territory of «Great Armenia», as Wilson’s Armenia and the Republic of Armenia together with Artsakh and Nakhijevan make up one third of the historical lands of Armenia. On November 22, 1920, with his wise arbitration award, the President of the United States, the greatest Democrat of the time, W. Wilson clearly divided the historical territories of Armenia into three parts, so that none of the three parties – Kurds, Turks and Armenians, would be unhappy. This was the verdict of a civilized world, the implementation of which was postponed due to the formation of the alliance between Lenin and Ataturk, but not removed from the strategic agenda of the superpowers.

MORALITY AS A PREREQUISITE FOR CULTURE

Saturday, November 11th, 2017

Summary
MORALITY AS A PREREQUISITE FOR CULTURE
Siranush G. Hovhannisyan
Keywords –
art, literature, religion, society, Human quality, Lord, Slave, spiritually-intellectual world, antimorality, amorali-ty.
The article focuses on the type of human society and the quality of rela-tions between members of that society, as well as morals and morality, as con-cepts that organize inter-human relations and culture. There are three types of morality – morality, antimorality and amorality. These three concepts are pre-sented as prerequisites for the development of culture and the main indices of the way of becoming out of man by Man. As well as the article considers litera-ture as a form of culture and language, as a means of forming a culture. The fact is underlined that the human creature is always in the positives of morality consciously or in the subconscious level of thinking.

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THE ISSUE OF LANDING THE ANTANTA TROOPS IN ALEXANDRETTA (September 1914 – March 1915)

Saturday, November 11th, 2017

Summary
THE ISSUE OF LANDING THE ANTANTA TROOPS IN ALEXANDRETTA
(September 1914 –March 1915)
Samvel A. Poghosyan

Key words –
Alexandretta, Cilicia, Entente troops landing, Dardanelles, Gallipoli.
Immediately after the outbreak of World War I, the British authorities dis-cussed the issue of landing the troops in Alexandretta. It was an important port in Cilicia, in the northeastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. The landing would entail the destruction of the Ottoman Empire.For this reason the Turks and Germans were worried, because Britain would need only 30,000 soldiers to organize this military action. Cilicia was populated mostly by Armenians, who were ready to help the British troops. The British Intelligence Service examined the area in detail and gave a positive conclusion on the landing. In January 1915, the British authorities decided to attack the Dardanelles by the forces of the navy and at the same time land at Alexan-dretta. Nobody in the British elite doubted the success of landing in Alexan-dretta, but some did not believe in success in the Dardanelles. However, the military operation in Alexandretta was eventually rejected by the British au-thorities. There were some reasons for this: the French authorities opposed this because they wanted to colonize Cilicia after the war. They were worried that if Cilicia was occupied by British troops, later they would not be able to get it back. The British recognized the rights of France in Cilicia and Syria, but at the same time they wanted to get Alexandretta. The latter was the most important port in the East of the Mediterranean Sea. Thus, Britain and France prevented each other from landing at Alexandretta. In the end, the Allies decided to land at Gallipoli, which was a great catastrophe for them. Thus, imperialism won, and the allies lost an important chance to overcome the Ottoman Empire. The refusal to land at Alexandretta and the failure in the Dardanelles gave the Turk-ish government a chance to organize the Armenian Genocide. This is one of the episodes of the story, when an almost real operation was revised at the last moment and this led to negative consequences.

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KURDS AND WORLD HISTORY In five volumes of Abdullah Öcalan’s works

Saturday, November 11th, 2017

Summary
KURDS AND WORLD HISTORY
In five volumes of Abdullah Öcalan’s works
Gevorg S. Khoudinyan
Key words –
Abdullah Öcalan, defense speech, civilization, capitalism, democratic society, democratic nation, United and in-dependent Kurdistan, Democratic confederate Kurdistan, W. Wil-son’s arbitral award.
The five volumes of Abdullah Öcalan’s works that are published in Russian in Moscow in 2011-2015 are written as extensive arguments of his defense speech in the
Turkish court, but in fact they are scientific and political justifications for the political claims of Kurdish people. The rich knowledge and desire to find universal solutions to national problems show that in the person of A. Öcalan, who has achieved great intel-lectual progress of the Kurdish people, we are dealing with a surprisingly harmonious image of the national figure. In the first volume of his works, representing the alternation of the cradle of Near-Middle Eastern civilizations and separate civilizations that emerged from Göbekli-Tepe-Portasar (not far from his native Urfa), Öcalan uses the fact that the geographical coordinates of the Taurus-Zagros arc as «Fertile Crescent» base correspond to the current places of residence of the Kurds and reckons them among a number of famous peoples of the Axis time, such as Assyrians, Armenians, Greeks, Jews or Persians. Thus, he repeats the groundless attempts of some Kurdish authors who make such judgmentsbased on the play of words with historical tribes and toponyms that are close to the word «Kurd». This he distorts the fundamental principles of F. Braudel, whom he re- peatedly quoted. The Brodelian notions of historical times and the «longue durée», necessary for assessing the history of civilizations, are completely distorted.

In the second volume of A. Öcalan’s works «Capitalist civilization» an attempt was made to overcome the Marxist perception of this concept and to view capitalism as a System that was formed along with commodity-money relations, and then together with the city and the state. Thanks to this, Öcalan identifies civilization and the social system, which allows him to give some civilizational essence to the struggle against capitalism, which he believes repeats the Hitler experience of creating an indicative society through his three branches (sex, sport and show). In the third volume of his works A. Öcalan sees the solution of the fundamental problem of building a democratic civilization in the formation of political and demo-cratic confederations to unite nations, which, in his opinion, is the only way to over-come homogeneous nation-states that are not alien to genocides and other state crimes.

In his fourth volume entitled «The Crisis of Civilization in the Near and Middle East»A. Öcalan passes to the problems of the region where he was born and fought for the solution of the Kurdish problem. Here he tries to gently transform the fact of the cor-respondence of modern geographic coordinates of the Kurds settlements with the cradle
of ancient civilizations and turn it into the idea of the Kurdish homeland. To do this, he again and again creates unreasonable, absolutely fictitious and unscientific parallels be-tween Sumerians and Hurrites and the Kurds now living on this territory.The Öcalan program on the solution of the Kurdish question is more extensively presented in the fifth volume entitled «The Kurdish Question and the Implementationof the Democratic Model of the Nation». Although Öcalan considers Armenians to be a direct and immediate heir of Urartu culture, but in his vast historical digression the concept of «Armenia» is almost absent, And from the 11th century, when the Seljuks appear, he immediately replaces Armenia with the non-existent «Kurdistan». He stub-
bornly avoids answering one elementary question – which state existed in these ter-ritories for two thousand years after the fall of Urartu. In the issue of assessing the causes of the Armenian Genocide, Öcalan partially repeats the statements of Marxist historians about the «expansionist goals» of the Ar-menian bourgeoisie as a result of the early development of capitalism among the Ar-menians. He also partially repeats the thesis about the «Turkish rebuff», invented by Turkish historiography, on the Armenian demand for independent statehood on the eve of the First World War. By transforming the internationally recognized (in 1914) problem of implementing reforms in Western Armenia in «Armenian separatism», he bypasses the issue of the responsibility of the Kurds for the Armenian Genocide. Mean-while, the recognition of the Armenian Genocide and the responsibility for it not only of Turkey as a state, but also of the Turkish and partly Kurdish people who directly and voluntarily participated in this bacchanalia, is the only way to build a democratic society in our region.

Moreover, based on the ideas of a democratic society and democratic nation (which were discussed by A.Öcalan), the greatest democrat of the first decade of the 20th century – US President Woodrow Wilson, on November 22, 1920 has already made a true fraternal division of Armenian historical lands between Armenians, Turks and Kurds and the results of his arbitral award are fixed on the corresponding map on the basis of the international mandate. According to this arbitration, Armenians do not get «Great Armenia», as the Turkish falsifiers of history say, but only a third of their his-torical lands.And irrespective of whether this division comes from the San Remo conference decisions, from the Treaty of Sevres or Woodrow Wilson’s arbitration, which retained its legal force, it was the greatest victory of democracy in our region, which was only temporarily suspended by the joint efforts of the Kemalists and the Bolsheviks. These decisions of the international community have nothing to do with the neo-imperial program of the United and Independent Kurdistan or the Democratic Confederate Kurdistan, which is the cover of the first. Because the creation of the Great Kurdistan instead of Turkey is not part of the plans of world powers.

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THE «LATE» VAZGEN SHUSHANIAN

Saturday, November 11th, 2017

Summary
THE «LATE» VAZGEN SHUSHANIAN
In front of the ports «pagan» movement
Nelly A. Tadevosyan
Key words –
Western and Diaspora literature, the «pagan» literarymovement, Daniel Varuzhan, VazgenShushanian, Ham-bardzumAraqelyan, «O, Lalage», criticism, worship of beauty, ro-manticism.
The article presents the main concepts of the «pagan» literary movement, particularly, the positive influence of the movement leader, great Western-Ar-menian writer Daniel Varuzhan on French-Armenian novelist Vazgen Shusha-nian’s creative system. Examining V. Shushanian’s «Gentle Letters of Spring Love» and «Summer Nights» we attempt to demonstrate the deep literary rela-tionship between the two artists, along with analyzing D. Varuzhan’s «pagan» heritage program

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THE PROBLEM OF GENRE TRANSFORMATION

Saturday, November 11th, 2017

Summary
THE PROBLEM OF GENRE TRANSFORMATION
In Aghasi Ayvazyan’s «Objective-18» book
G. K. Shashikyan
Key words –
narratology, narrator, text, intertextuality, pa-ratextuality, metatextuality, hypertextuality, architextuality, Aghasi Ayvazyan, Objective-18.
The article analyzes the book «Objective-18» by Aghasi Ayvazyan as an in-teresting example of knowingly cited quotes (exact or modified, when a text or part of a text refers to or mentions another text or part of a text) from one’s own and other authors’ texts. In literary works, as well as in any type of text, the title and the epigraph have most important functions due to the place they take; they express the author’s position and guide the reader, they create an intertextual link, change the meaning of the text or give it a new meaning, serve as hints for coming events and so on. The author of the article examines the internal connections between the title, the epigraph and the text, which led to the transformation of the genre.

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THE ORIGIN AND PHONEMIC VALUE OF THE OLD ARMENIAN Ղ (L) AND GH Լ (Ł)

Saturday, November 11th, 2017

Summary
THE ORIGIN AND PHONEMIC VALUE OF THE OLD ARMENIAN
Ղ (L) AND GHԼ(Ł)
Diachronic Concept
Vardan Z. Petrosyan
Key Words:
Pre-Armenian,liquid sonorant, Velar sound, fricative sound, sub-phoneme. The(ł) and լ(l) sonorants of Old Armenian were the main speech variations of the pre-Armenian sonorant phoneme <*l> and were in a sub-phoneme relation with each other. In the 5 th century, at the initial stage of Classical Armenian, (ł)-լ (l) contrast appears especially at the ending position of the word. It had a function of semantic distinction (phonological). However, in native Armenian it was excluded for (ł) to appear at the beginning of a word. This means that here, in this position, they were in an additional relation of distribution (sub-phonological). Most apparently, the phonemicization of (ł) as a velar sound is the result of divergent developments.

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NEW METHOD OF SUBSTANTIATION OF THE THEORY OF SEVEN CASES

Saturday, November 11th, 2017

Summary
NEW METHOD OF SUBSTANTIATION OF THE THEORY OF SEVEN CASES
Bagrat S. NersisyanKarine Zh. Sahakyan
Key words
– syntagma, paradigm, abstract grammatical mean-ing, morpheme, grammatical synonymy, homonymy, absolute-ness, accusativity, possessiveness, being dative, initiality, accom-panying.
In this article, we attempt to single out seven cases in the literary Eastern Armenian language on the basis of the abstracted grammatical meanings of the cases, which are expressed by the corresponding morphemes. We believe that the paradigm and the syntagma need to be compared and not opposed, as a result of which it turns out that the case wordform is not only a morphological but also a syntactic category.In our opinion, the accusative is a separate, independent case, since it cannot be characterized by the grammatical meaning of unlimitedness, absoluteness, which are inherent only in the nominative case. The accusative case of inanimate objects depends on the semantics of the transitive verb and is therefore characterized by accusativity. Nominative and accusative cases of the inanimate objects are grammatical homonyms.The genitive and the dative are also independent cases: the genitive is characterized by being possessive, and the dative – by being dative. These are incompatible grammatical meanings. Therefore, despite the fact that these cases are formed by the same morphemes, they are not polysemantic wordforms, but homonymous different wordforms. Using the abstracted grammatical meanings inherent in the corresponding case forms put forward by E. Aghayan and G. Jahukyan, we come to the conclusion that each case is characterized by its inherent grammatical meaning. These are: nominative – unlimitedness, absoluteness, accusative – being accusative, genitive – possessiveness, dative – being dative, initial case – being initial, instrumental case – accompanying, local case – being at.

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17-18 th CENTURIES KHACHKARS PLACED ON THE WALLS OF CHURCHES

Saturday, November 11th, 2017

Summary
17-18th CENTURIES KHACHKARS PLACED ON THE WALLS OF CHURCHES
Arrangement, functions, memorial inscription
Arsen E. Harutyunyan
Key words
– Khachkar (cross stone), memorial inscription, church, arrangement, rosette, east, window, the front of altar bema, benefactor.
Khachkars (cross-stones) take a special place in a number of monuments of Medieval Armenia, about which numerous albums, researches and articles have been published. Our immediate reference is related to the khachkars placed on the walls of the churches dating from the 17-18th centuries and and created si-multaneously with them. These khachkars have so far not been awarded any at-tention yet. As shown by our research, the discussed khachkars are primarily distin-guished by their compositional features. In particular, they are characterized by: simplicity of decorative ornaments, ornamental belt and cross in the form of braids, undecorated areas on the cross, the absence of a rosette at the base of the palmettes. The latter circumstance can be explained by the fact that the khachkars were usually built into the upper part of the church walls, and the church itself took the role of the rosette in this case. Similarly, the placement of the khachkars above the window is explained, when the window replaces the rosette forming the compositional unity with the cross, and, being conditioned by the semantics of light, obviously symbolizes Christ and the «star-light» com-ing of the cross.The examined cross-stones primarily decorate the eastern walls of the churches, which symbolizes the idea of the direction of the Second Coming of J. Christ. Similar khachkars were also built in the central part of the outer walls, above the main entrance, into the base of the altar, etc. Apparently, this is ex-plained by the perception of the khachkar as an intermediary between the God and the believer.Some memorable inscriptions are often placed on the built-in khachkars. The latter transmit documentary information about the creation of the building, the customer and his relatives, the caretaker of the church, and sometimes the mas-ter-builder of the church.The examined type of late medieval khachkars is distinguished mainly by its compositional, functional and memorable features, thanks to which the art of creating khachkars found its new and original manifestation also in the 17th-18th centuries.

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