Category Archives: LITERARY CRITICISM

ALL THE WAY TO THE “COMPLETE OSHAKAN” – 2019-2

Bibliography as straight line

Summary

Suren D. Danielyan

Key words – bibliography, Hakob Oshakan, Vahe Oshakan, Marc Nichanian, Artashes Der-Khachadourian, bibliographical data, criticism, press, narrative, tale, novel, criticism, mainstream of European mind.

The comprising of the Western Armenian great writer Oshakan’s bibliography had a long and hard way, that began since 1946s of the last century, when the writer was alive and interested in estimating his works. Our attention is focused on his collection “Qaghhanq” (“Chosen works”) (1946). After many years of bibliographical work Oshakan got a chance to overpass his literature and memorandum from merely personal circle to all European critical principals of his time. Since 30s Oshakan got acknowledged as a theorist and promoted Armenian literature all the way up to the level of world literature.

From this perspective Artashes Der-Khachadourian’s and Marc Nichanian’s bibliographical work (1999) is prominent and retains our attention as their analysis can be evaluated as remarkable literary piece in the bibliography of Armenian Literature.

In this article we have tried to show the main tendencies of the writer’s perception that brought to an ultimate conclusion: we are on the verge of a necessity for the compilation of new bibliography.

THE DIALOGUE NATURE OF THE LYRIC-EPIC POEM BY КHACHATUR АBOVYAN “ТHE PLAY OF АGHASI” – 2019-2

Summary

Astghik V. Soghoyan

Key words – lyric-epic plot, dialogue, narration, narrator, polyphony, Aghasi, action-event, perception, focusing, time contex.

The article is dedicated to the study of the narrative parts of the poem by Khachatur Abovyan “The Play of Aghasi”. It touches upon the plot of the work, that is, lyrical monologue and actions enclosed in feelings that are expressed through dialogues. The poem is constructed by the principle of polyphony: the only accomplished action is carried out by the lyrical hero Aghasi through his dialogue with the mountain Masis (Ararat), in the scope of his perceptions such accomplished actions are also taking place around other characters who take up the thread of narration and begin telling different events. Within this hierarchic structure in the words of the literary hero the words uttered by others are originating and thus the five-leveled narrations are created.

The primary aim of this article is to reveal the relationship between those voices, to study the characters of the narrators, hierarchy, the classification of their narrations, time context and perception.

THE DREAM OF HAYDUK: LERMONTOV – ISAHAKYAN – AL. BLOK – 2019-1

A Literary Sketch

Summary

Azat K. Yeghiazaryan

Key words – Isahakyan, Lermontov, Al. Blok, Armenian poetry, Russian poetry, translation, loos translation, free adaptation, romanticism, death, dream.

The article studies the three developments of the same poetic plot,that is, the death of a soldier or freedom fighter in the battlefield. In his time Lermontov wrote his famous poem “The Dream” , that tells about how a dying soldier in Daghestan sees a dream about his homeland and the woman , who thinks about him. Later the poem was shifted into Armenian by Isahakyan , but here the concrete details were changed by Armenian realities. In his work an Armenian freedom fighter,i.e. a fighter for the liberation of Armenia is dying. He died in his motherland – in the valley of Salno. He sees another dream, that is, the liberated Armenia. In those dreams the national colourfulness of two poems is clearly perceived. Later the shift done by Ishakyan was translated into Russian by Alexander Blok , who highly valued Isahakyan’s literary activity. Actually the poetic plot of Lermontov came back to Russia in the form of interpretation done by Isahakyan. But this wasn’t strangely enough perceived both by Blok and literary critics.

THE BIOPHILOSOPHY OF LEVON SHANT AND HOVHANNES TUMANYAN – 2019-1

In the cotext of references to the doctrine of psychophysics by Wilhelm Wundt

Summary

Aram G. Alexanyan

Key words – Levon Shant, Hovh. Tumanyan, wayward, pantheism, evolution, life as a spiritual reality, the ideal of Great life, activity; universal life creation, collective will.

Biophilosophy of Levon Shant and Hovh. Tumanyan has never become a separate theme for investigation by revealing the philosophical imprint of their worldview. This issue was partly touched upon in the written monographs and articles but has never been studied completely and thoroughly. Some reasearchers have pointed out that Shant had been the student of Wilhelm Wundt, but his scientific and literary heritage was never considered in the cotext of the doctrine of the German philosopher.

Moreover, the literary heritage of Hovh. Tumanian was evaluated in the field of studies devoted to him by value-based forms deriving from Soviet ideology (realism, the expresser of social protest, writer of village life, the singer of the nation’s aims, hopes and feelings, popularity and so on). To this was added the irrelevan and simplified apologetics, that is, the praise that flooded the field of studies devoted to Tumanyan. We believe that both the biophilosophy and litearary heritage of Shant and Tumanyan do need profound and comprehensive specialized study.

The aim of combined study of the biophilosophy of Levon Shant and Hovhannes Tumanya carried out in the article is to completely outline, as much as possible, the cultural transformation of Wundt’s doctrine into the litearary heritage of Armenian thinkers

The reference to the field of studies devoted to Shant, in essence, is intended to revise its relations with Nietzsche, symbolists, the precise questionings of the time and to propose an effective research method for examining his works.

The perceptions of Hovh. Tumanyan deriving from Wundt’s doctrine also have fundamental nature (a/ theory of evolution; b/ the necessity of perceiving the nations’ psychology; c/ classification of the world as a spiritual relity; e/ universal unity of mankind and ideals and so on).

To this geographical determinism and cultural-historical principle is added.

GENEOLOGY OF “5TH AVENUE” BY V. GRIGORYAN – 2018-3

Summary

Jenia A. Kalantaryan

Key words – imaginary; fictional spaces; cultural tradition; influence and individuality; autobiography; village prose, city prose; style, ideological direction; art of the narrative.

The article discusses metamorphoses of the tradition of creating imaginary fictional space (Yoknapatawpha, Macondo, Tsmakut) inthe prose of VahagnGrigoryan. It is shown that byobserving certain patterns, through the means of the ideological direction of his inquiry, peculiarity of his art of the narrative and particularity of style, he creates original prose that advantageously differs from the ones typical forprevious writers, as well as,distinguishes his work in the framework ofthe current Armenian literary landscape.

PHILOSOPHICAL SELF-DETERMINATION OF SUICIDE – 2018-2

Summary

Tatevik H. Merjanyan

Key words – suicide, psychoanalysis, introspection, psychology, lifestyle, will qualities, self-revelation, epistolary novelette, hagiography, intertextuality.

The aim of the given publication is to study and evaluate the epistolary novelette by Nar-Dos “An na Saroyan”. Here the most interesting thing is that in this considered work the author observes psychologically deep and divergent phenomenon. In the study the philosophical idea of suicide is crucial. It concludes that Nar-Dos has directly spoken about the turbulences taking place in person’s introspective world that have little or almost nothing to do with the outer circumstances.

THE THEME OF LOVE IN THE SCHOOL OF ASHUGH’S OF NOR JUGHA – 2018-2

Summary

Sose B. Poghosyan

Key words – The School of Ashugh’s (troubadours) of Nor Jugha; ashugh(troubadour); theimage pattern cliché; love songs; blazon songs; medieval poem; ode; medley poem.

The aim of this article is to study the forms of manifestation of the theme of love in the Iranian- Armenian school of ashughs (troubadours) of Nor Jugha. As troubadours’ literature assumes, the literary conception of love here is quite crucial. Ashughs’ characters and functions come to confirm the real perception of ‘Ashugh” term, which is amorous singer. The latter is determined as a multilateral artist, who is both the author and the performer of his songs. Woman is worshiped as the object of love. The act of loving was in itself ennobling and refining one, the means to the fullest expression of whichwere potentially fine and elevated in human nature. Woman gradually gets revived and by gaining voice and character, becomes the part in that love game.

A special notice has been paid to the “Ashugh” word etymology. Its manifestations and functional meaning in different in nations’ languages that had examined Ashughs’ heritage. The theoretical part is based on the carols of famous troubadours such as GhulEgazi, BagherOghli, Amir Oghli, GhulHovhannessi, QeshishOghli and HartunOghli. The author has observed the expression of the classic contributions and image patterns in the love poems of ashughs, has emphasized the presence of the original manifestations, through which the role of the first Armenian school of ashugh’s in Nor Jugha in the context of the literary- cultural life of the 17- 18th centuries has been valued.

THE LITERARY PERCEPTION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN AND ASIAN – 2018-1

Summary

Albert A. Makaryan

Key words – Hakob Paronyan; Turkish language by Armenian letters; “If the Mountain Doesn’t Go to Prophet, the Prophet Goes to the Mountain”; genre; comic narration; dialogue; “alafranka”, the comic; satire; “Uncle Paghtasar”.

The present publication is devoted to the analysis of one of the interesting literary piece by Armenian genius humorist writer Hakob Paronyan (1843-1891) written in Turkish language with Armenian letters and entitled “If the Mountain Doesn’t Go to Prophet, the Prophet Goes to the Mountain”, which is a dramatic extensive comic narration: by the way, this analysis is carried out for the first time in philology. The author testifies that in this creation Hakob Paronyan has undertaken a brave experiment: he has broken the structure of classic novel, i.e. he has taken away the narration from the narrator and the whole comic narration from the first lines up to the end is composed by dialogues, which, in essence, has brought this creation near to dramatic literary work. As a result of the lack of the author’s narration, the humorist writer has created a literary work that shines with alive and vivid images of clashes between the old and the new that are taking place in the society

THE ISSUES ON THE NATURE OF ARMENIAN VERSE – 2018-1

Summary

Ashkhen E. Jrbashyan

Key words – versification, metrics, numerical verse, dimensional verse, accentuated verse, “Armenian metre”, metric foot, stress, poetical member.

The article attempts for the first time to systemize and present the general picture and fundamental issues of Armenian metrics of Pre-Abeghyan period which includes 18th century and the early 20th century. The author justifies the fact that already in 18th -19th centuries there were serious preconditions for the formation of Armenian metrics which were connected with the development of grammatology, as well as, with the enrichment of main artistic experience and enhancement of translation literature. The Armenian versifiers of that period revealed not only the nature of Old Armenian and Medieval verse but also the nature of the new verse composed in ashkharabar (New Armenian language): they also pointed the influences of other languages on Armenian metrics. These all factors created some preconditions for the further serious studies of versification.

ARMENIAN LEXICOGRAPHY FROM THE SECOND HALF OF THE XVIII CENTURY AND THE COLOPHONS OF THE ARMENIAN MANUSCRIPTS – 2017-4

Summary

Khachik A. Harutyunyan

Key words – scribes, lexicography, word formation structures, historical lexicology, Classical Armenian, Middle Armenian.

Armenian manuscripts are rich in colophons which provide abundant material for dictionaries covering different periods of the development of Armenian language. In this article, we examine the relationship between Armenian dictionaries and colophons, which we present in three groups: a. words, which are known to dictionaries only from the colophons. b. words, which are known to dictionaries in one example, but the colophonsgive other testimonies. c. words attested in dictionaries, the older usages of which we find in the colophons of the Armenian manuscripts. A number of new words that are not attested in Armenian dictionaries is also presented with the study of their formation structures.