Astghik A. Babajanyan, Artavazd S. Zaqyan
The complex of Selim caravanserai was built in 1332 by prince Chesar Orbelyan according to the bilingual inscription. It consists of the main three-nave hall, the antechamber and the building adjacent to the antechamber.
In 2012 the joint expedition group of the Institute of archaeology and ethnography NAS RA and “The Service for the protection Historical Environment and Cultural Museums Reservation” Non Commercial State Organization of the RA Ministry of Culture carried out excavations in the territory of the Selim caravanserai. The aim of the excavations was to ascertain the functional role of the building adjecent to the east of antechamber as well as to check the durability of building foundation.
The excavations disproved the identity of the adjacent building as a chapel (which had been known in extant literature), and likewise disproved the presence of the door in the south side as it was marked in past measurements. The entry was found in the west side of the building, which is connected with the antechamber.
The majority of the found artifacts are pottery of the XIII-XIV c. which has parallels in ceramic production of simultaneous monuments of Armenia. A collection of metal artifacts was found, consisting of a large needle, fragments of a door lock, shoes for oxen and stone working tools, as well as a fragment of an obsidian knife blade.
As the results of excavations several versions were raised regarding the functional meaning of the adjacent building (refectory, staff apartments, hall for commercial exchanges, guardhouse) which will be supported or contradicted by further excavations. The new excavations revealed various previously unknown facts, enriching the historical-cultural description of the Selim caravanserai.
Arsen E. Harutyunyan
The writer and miniaturist of the 18th century Yeremia archbishop Oshakantsi is buried in the monastic cemetery of St. Echmiatsin. His prolific activity was particularly remarkable during the reign of the Catholicos Simeon Yerevantsi (1763-1780), as it is also evidenced by the epitaph.
Some manuscripts painted by him are kept in the Mesrop Mashtots Institute of Ancient Manuscripts “Matenadaran” (N 1056, 1817, 2646, 2891, 2892, 10677). These were studied by art specialist A. Gevorgyan. The miniatures of Yeremia Oshakantsi are especially distinguished by their painting peculiarities: here the bright colors and gold are predominant.
The data about Yeremia Oshakantsi is preserved in the publications of Maghakia archbishop Ormanyan and Gyut senior priest Aghanyants. The epitaph, which is represented in this article, accomplishes and verifies the existing facts about his life and manuscript activity.
Hamlet L. Petrosyan
The anthropomorphic relieves of the Artsakh khachkars are the unique manifestation in the culture of khachkars. It is not occasional, that young Hovsep Orbeli paid special attention to the suc composistions during his scientific trip to Khachen in 1909, and he wrote the separate article dedicated on this matter. The researcher only decribed thirteen setips, and tried to find out the sources of their origination, time, as well as the images’ identity considering them as the unique display of the Armenian culture. However, later, while studying the sculptural images again, Orbeli tried to display them as manifestation of the “Albanian” culture. This circumstance was taken by Azerbaijani researchers as a chance for their attempts to “albanization” the khachkars of Artsakh.
In the present aricle the ceration chronology, the main themes and images and the folk roots of the anthropomorphic composition are presented on base of examination of the more than hundred khackars, as well as the reasons of considering them as “Albanians” by Orbeli are revealed.
Preliminary observation according to the information of the field investigations in the basin of the river of Aghavno
Gagik M. Sargsyan, Artak V.Gnuni, Aleksan H. Hakobyan
Though the investigation of the eastern Syuniq (the territory of Qashatagh Region of NKR) began in the XIX century, there are many unsolved problems in the history of the region. In particular, ancient settlements and fortresses of the region still have not been sufficiently examined. By the comparison of Google Earth Map’s data and field investigations, more than 30 fortresses dating from II-I mil. B. C. were fixed. In this period there was the system of fortified settlements along the river of Agavno and its inflows as well as the main roads.
Arsen E. Harutyunyan
Stephanos Lehatsi is one of the famous clergymen, theologians, philologists and philosophers of the 17th century. He was born in Lvov. Since 1630’s he arrived to Vagharshapat. Stephanos was ordained archimandrite by Philipos Catholicos (1632-1655) and he began religion activity. He translated a number of scientific, theological works from Latin and Polish into Armenian.
Tombstone of Stephanos Lehatsi is situated on the eastern side of St. Hripsime Monastery, but the date of death is almost illegible in the epitaph. Due to that reason a number of researchers noted the date of death approximately, especially in 1680-1699. Taking into account the above-mentioned facts, the gravestone was cleaned and the epitaph was investigated thoroughly. In the end of the investigation it was found out that exact date of death of Stephanos Lehatsi is 1689.
Arsen E. Harutyunyan
This article presents certain evidence from newly-found inscriptions about “liter” weight measure in the medieval Armenia. The given weight measure was mentioned in the newly-found dedicatory inscriptions of St. Hripsime and St. Shoghakat churches, where the pasture donated products (salt, rice, candle etc.) to be commemorated in the liturgies. The article also contains a short overview of the works of several scholars (Schirakaci A., Manandyan H., Vardanyan R.), who studied Armenian measuring system as well as relative counts concerning liter. The work also includes description of the weight stones, found during archaelogical excavations, and proving that liter was used in Armenia. According to R. Vardanyan, it was equal to 320,4 grams (according to Dvin materials) or 320 grams (according to Ani materials). There are examples from annalistic sources, particularly from memoranda and chronicles, where liters represent today’s kilos. Thus, the existence of liter in the weight system of the medieval Armenian inscriptions contributes to our knowledge of this measure of weight.
Arsen E. Harutyunyan
There is a Khachkar in the eastern side of St. Hripsime Monastery. It is remarkable for its 13th century inscription carved on the pedestal. Ghevond Alishan and Karapet Basmajyan have evidence about this inscription but their publications do not correspond with current requirements of Epigraphy. We have tried to compare the work of previous researchers with the work done by us on this inscription.
The content of the inscription has reference to the deceased and their weeping parents. The Khachkar was previously situated in the village of Khalfalu in the Surmalu province, and in 1874 it was brought to Vagharshapat. This Khachkar opens new pages and possibilities in Armenian Archaeology, Paleography and Epigraphy.
Ashot Gagik Manucharyan
The newly discovered lithography at the Church of St. Gevorg of Mughni, along with the citations made by Aeachi (¾³ãÇÇ) and Amir Hasan, prove that in the Middle Ages, particularly in the XIVth century, Mughni was within the reign of the House of the Broshyans. According to a citation at Hovhanavank, Aziz Bek’s son, Gamrikel’s grandson Zakarya purchased Mughni. On the newly discovered lithography we read the name of Amir Aziz, who, we believe, was the father of Zakarya, Aziz Bek.
An Attempt of a socio-culturological analysis of the Early Bronze Urbanism
Artak V. Gnuni
In the IV-III Millenniums B.C. the Armenian Highland was included in the area of the Shengavit (Kuro-Arax) archaeological culture which occupied about 1.5 ml. sq. km. It spread from the Northern Caucasus to Syria and Palestine, from the North-West Iran to the Tauros Mountains. It was characterized by some similarities in handcraft, architecture, beliefs. These factors led to the activation of the relations between the communities, and, as a result, to the formation of a common historical-cultural area. This created favourable conditions for the social development of the society, and, eventually, for the decay of the Primitive Society.
Urbanism was one of the most important socio-cultural phenomena on the stage of the decay of the Primitive Society.
In the Early Bronze Age the process of urbanism was proceeding very actively in the Armenian Highland, including the whole region of the Shengavit cultural area.
Some settlements of the Shengavit culture had almost all signs of the early cities; therefore, they had the principal functions of the early cities, being the agricultural, trade-handcraft, cultural-ideological, military-political centers.