Part one. History as culturally significant presence of the past of short-lived life
Keywords – history, language, being, Movses Khorenatsi, hermeneutics, understanding, culture, meaning, historical text.
This paper presents the problematic of understanding and interpretation in the realization of the genuine destination of history and, thus, in the being-oftruth of history. Understanding and interpretation are necessarily interwoven in the being of history as such. Into this problematic are necessarily and preferably involved both the historian author – during all stages of his history-creation (selecting and collecting historical material, research and exposition) and the reader – in his perusal relatedness with the historical text. History is the understanding and interpretation of the genuine sense (meaning) and spirituality of the narrated in itself essential and significant bygones or yores of the world and in it also of mankind՛s self-identity, life and culture, and as such it is a message to a “reading-lover” striving for understanding wisdom, valiance and heroism, every virtue and good-orderliness. And in its inner interrelation with history hermeneutics builds the foundation, forms the adequate construction, improves and leads to the completion of its necessary and preferable fulfillment the truth of the being of history as such and the sense, which reveals that truth.
Dedicated to the 700th anniversary
Seyran A. Zakaryan
Key words – Ontology, Proofs of the Existence of God, Monotheism, Creation, Providence, Faith, Reason.
The article analyses the prominent Armenian Medieval theologian and philosopher Hovhan Vortnetsy’s (1315-1388) metaphysical and ontological views, in particular, the issues on the existence of God, monotheism, divine names, God and the world, creation and providence, discussed by him. As a philosophizing theologian Vorotnetsi, discussing religious-theological issues, firstly, introduces their philosophical solutions, criticizes and denies the approaches that contradict the Revelation truths and the church doctrine and, secondly, he tries to justify the religious truths and the principle of the Christian faith through philosophical material and methods, logical and rational arguments. In particular, in order to justify the existence and nature of God, providence, monotheism and creation, he suggests rational proofs based on facts and evidence as well as on metaphysical paradigms (universal movement, determinism, necessity, accident and advisability). Although his metaphysics and ontology, which are mostly based on Aristotle’s teaching, are only an introduction to theology: on the one hand, they illustrate the high reputation and status of Philosophy and Logic and, on the other hand, they reveal the growth of interest in experience-based evidence.
On the issues of the translation into Armenian of some of the key terms of Martin Heidegger’s work “Being and Time”.
Ashot V. Voskanian
Key words – Heidegger, philosophical translation, fundamental ontology, Being, entity, Dasein, existence
The article discusses some problems of translation of Martin Heidegger’s «Being and time» into Armenian. Some translation versions for such terms as «Sein», «Dasein», «Existenz» and their derivatives are proposed.
Following Kuno Fischer’s Reconstruction of Ontologico- Gnosiological Problems of Ancient Greek Philosophy
Hakob S. Madoyan
The article discusses Kuno Fischer’s reconstruction of Ancient Greek philosophy, which is presented in the “Introduction” to his “History of New Philosophy”. Preserving formulations of main problems and the course of reconstruction proposed by Fischer, the development of ontologico-gnosiological problems of Ancient Greek philosophy is briefly traced on the basis of slightly different factual material with a grater accent on pre-Socratics and stressing some ideas, which are more topical from the viewpoint of modernity. An attempt is made to answer some possible criticism towards such reconstruction, as well as to discern some characteristics of Ancient Greek thought and Western thought in general.
Ashot V. Voskanian
Heidegger’s short-lived cooperation with the Nazi regime has its theoretical roots in his philosophical concept of “overcoming metaphysics”. In social terms, metaphysics was identified with the technology oriented European modernity, represented by the “Americanism” and “Bolshevism”, which, according to Heidegger, were “gripping Europe in a vice”. However, Heidegger’s almost immediate disappointment in the National Socialism didn’t reconcile him with the liberal alternative of the postwar world order. Instead, he committed himself to the development of the “new way of thinking”, designed to pave the way for the future “non metaphysical” world.
Marieta K. Nikoghosyan
20th century philosophers (following Kant) rightly emphasized the danger of identification of human understandings with the real-world existence, in other words, the danger of the “ontologization” of human existence and knowledge. Especially important was the struggle of phenomenologists and existentialists against the “naturalization” and biologization of human being, when human’s research was represented by natural Sciences as the “last word” of the human essence. People usually learn to combine themselves with the world, learn to see their existence as a part and continuation of the world’s existence. They make judgments about the world not only in terms of their existence, consciousness and kind, but also proceeding from the world’s things. The human’s individual existence is controversial: people actually can look at the world only through the lens of their own existence, consciousness and system of values and at the same time human being is capable, in which Heidegger was right: “Inquire about the existence as such”. Individuals, generations of people and all of humanity proceed from their “residence” and “time”, when they “fit” in the world. But they wouldn’t be able to make any vitally important and effective step, if every day and every hour they wouldn’t disclose how “existential” the objective qualities of things and processes of the world are by themselves. People learn to synthesize themselves with the world, regarding their existence as a part and continuation of the world existence. Otherwise they wouldn’t be able to live in this world, and moreover, they wouldn’t be able to inquire about the existence as such. And it is not accidental, that Heidegger in his later works seeking to overcome the subjectivism and the psychologism of his earliest position moves to the foreground of the existence as such. And developing the ideas of Dilthey, Husserl and Heidegger, Gadamer brings the hermeneutics, as a philosophical doctrine, to the bases of human life, directly to human’s nature. He is seeking a way of philosophy in “the very existence”, for which he thoroughly explores existential grounds and objective socio-historical preconditions.
According to the doctrine of alive ethics
Gegham A. Khachatryan
The article presents the definitions of truth and wisdom given by philosophy and science. It analyzes the concept of truth. Presented perception and definition of truth and wisdom of the doctrine of Alive Ethics, understanding of the ways and conditions of their achievements, their characteristics and properties. According to the authors of the Alive Ethics, the acquisition of the truth and wisdom is necessary to develop consciousness, raising it to the level of acquisition of the intuition’s highest degree. The doctrine draws a lot of attention on the inner workings of a person, self-improvement. The path leading to wisdom is the spiritual, moral perfection of man and society.
Armine M. Melkonyan
Philosopher David the Invincible in his Encomium on the Theoleptic Holy Cross calls the “holy and perfect children of faith” for adoration of the Cross of God. The word “child” (manuk) , which is a technical term specifying a group of people with certain properties, was used in theological texts to describe the clergymen as well as secular Christians. The “godlike philosopher”, who is defined as holy and perfect in the Definitions of Philosophy by David, is very similar with the concept of “children of faith”. Some other general ideas and expressions are indicated in the Encomium and the Definitions, written in the light of neo-platonic philosophy.
In the article the question of the authenticity of the Encomium is touched upon, accepting the testimonies of the medieval sources due to which the Encomium on the Holy Cross was created by the philosopher David the Invincible, the same author who wrote the Definitions and other philosophical works.
Marieta K. Nikoghosyan
Thus, the focus is mainly on Heidegger’s philosophy ‘’existence’’ analysis of the concept of meaning. According to him, being from Western philosophical thought until his early days, has been perceived as a presence. Presence is being defined as the presence of time. In other words, Heidegger is for being on time or existential existence. Throughout the human being interpretation of the basic method by Heidegger of human existence, which he means ‘’Dasein’’ term. Researchers believe that human perception by Heidegger rather ‘’Dasein’’ existence is the consciousness of being. The founder of German existentialism is convinced that the only human being is aware of his own mortality and just being aware of its existence՚s contemporarity, due to which he is able to realize his being, as an existential being, meant historically to be open to his understanding of the existence.