Category Archives: SCIENTIFIC

THE CHALLENGE OF STATEHOOD – AR Federation and the political status of both parts of Armenia in 1917 – 2017-3


Lilit Hr. Hovhannisyan

Key words – ARF Dashnaktsutyun, Western Armenia, Eastern Armenia, Transcaucasia, autonomy, independence, the right of nations to self – determination, H. Zavriyan, Rostom (Stepan Zoryan), Russian Provisional Government, Armenian question, Armenian separate army corps.

In 1905 «Caucasus Project» ARF Dashnaktsutyun brought up a proposal out of necessity to settle of the issue of Western and Eastern Armenia’s political status separately. In 1907 the idea was fixed in the Party program, and in 1914 it was approved by the Eighth General Assembly of ARF. It was set a task to achieve broad autonomy for Western Armenia within the Ottoman state, and to demand autonomy for Eastern Armenia within the Federal Republic of Transcaucasia; the latter was to be an integral part of the Russian Federative Republic. After annexation of Western Armenia by the Russian army in 1915 – 1916 only one change was made in demand of autonomy for Western Armenia – that is the word «Ottoman« was replaced by the word «Russian«, respectively. The claim of Western Armenia’s autonomy did not contradict to idea of it’s independence, moreover it was considered to be a feasible intermediate phase on the way of the real preparing for and attaining independence for the Western Armenia.

The victory of the February revolution in Russia in 1917 created prerequisites for the realization of the program aims of ARF Dashnaktsutyun. Thanks to the efforts of ARF, in particular H. Zavriyan, Lip. Nazaryants and A. Chilingirian, on April 26 (May 9) Russian Provisional Government adopted decision «On governance of the war by right conquered regions of Turkish Armenia«, by which the civil administration of Russian army conquered Western Armenia was withdrawn from the Caucasian authorities, as well as military authorities of Caucasian Front and was handed over directly to the Provisional Government henceforth the final decision on the province’s status due to the peace treaty. So, a status of a separate administrative unit in the Russian state was passed to Western Armenia. This decision, as well as the instructions, given by the Provisional Government on May 15 to the General Commissioner of Western Armenia, established a legal basis to consolidate Armenians in western armenian territories and to achieve the autonomy. In late 1917, about 150 thousand Armenian refugees returned to their homeland – Western Armenia. The socio – economic, political and cultural life of Western Armenians became organized and noticeably active.

It was important also to ensure the physical security and protection of Armenian population and Armenia not only from Turk’s and Kurd’s attacks and robbery, but also from the possible attacks of the Turkish army. For this purpose ARF Dashnaktsutyun (Rostom (Stepan Zoryan) and Lip. Nazaryants) made efforts to move the Armenian soldiers and officers of the Russian army to Armenia and create an Armenian separate army corps, due to the Provisional Government’s policy of the nationalization of the army. So was founded the Armenian national army. This played a decisive role not only to save the Armenian people from physical extermination during the Turkish invasion to Western Armenia and Transcaucasia in 1918, but also to restore the independent statehood on the small part of historical Armenia.

The problem of the political status of Eastern Armenia was essential as well for ARF. In the summer of 1917 the Party brought forth a project to the Russian central and Transcaucasian local authorities on administrative repartition of Transcaucasian region, worked out by Av. Shakhatunyan. According to the project, it was proposed to separate mountainous regions largely populated by Armenians from the Muslim – dominated lowland regions, so as to found an Armenian Canton in the Armenian highlands, including therein the Erivan Province, the mountainous – Armenian part of the Elizavetpol Province, the Akhalqalaq county from Tiflis Province, the Armenian part of the Borchaloo county, Kars and Kaghzvan counties of the Kars region. The Georgians and the Tatars were against the creation of the Armenian Canton, having territorial claims towards the Armenian territories, while the Provisional Government did not realize it because of its short existence.

In conditions of the Russian army’s defeats in Western Front, as well as the Provisional Government’s political crisis, the increasing Bolshevik threat the ARF Dashnaktsutyun raised the issue of self – determination and independence of Western Armenia, strengthening political ties with the US and European countries in order to obtain guarantees of international supervision, if necessary. But the realization of this idea became impossible in 1917 because of the Bolshevik government’s yielding policy towards Quadruple Alliance countries in the name of prompt signing of separate peace treaty, as well as the German – Turkish military and diplomatic pressure, the withdrawal of Russian troops from Western Armenia, the insufficiency of human, economic and military resources therein.



Karen H. Khachatryan

Key words – Republic of Armenia, military-industrial complex, military-industrial Commission, manufacturing, weapons, ammunition, military equipment.

During the first years of Armenia’s independence the authorities have mainly succeeded in forming a quite flexible system of management of the MIC (military–industrial complex), which contributed to the organization of military production and its development within the country. In the conditions of blockade, socio-economic crisis, war activities the MIC enterprises produced and provided the army with a large amount of weapons and ammunition, military equipment and uniform, renovated and equipped military equipment, etc., thereby greatly contributing to the glorious victory of Armenians in Artsakh war, as well as in the strong defense of newly–independent Armenia’s borders.



Armen.Ts. Marukyan

Key words – Overcoming of consequences of the Armenian Genocide, Road map, Republic of Armenia, Armenian Diaspora, Ottoman Empire, Turkey, Arbitral award of Woodrow Wilson, Treaty of Sevres, Treaty of Lausanne.

Recently have begun to extend opinions on allegedly impossibility of process of overcoming consequences of the Armenian Genocide because of lack of mechanisms and methods of realization of this process have begun to extend. Willy-nilly the problem becomes primitive by similar reasonings, discussion of a question is transferred to unscientific, household level, than, in fact, the idea of compensation for the Armenian Genocide depreciates. Meanwhile, if not to go into extremes and to be guided by realistic concepts, then it is quite possible to find rational solutions of this problem. On the basis of historic facts, norms and the principles of international law, and also in particular on a precedent on which compensation to the Jewish people for Holocaust consequences is still carried out, it is quite possible to develop certain tools, methods and mechanisms of realization also of compensation for Genocide to the Armenian people. In this article are offered certain methods and mechanisms of overcoming territorial, cultural and civilization, material, and also moral and psychological consequences of Genocide made concerning the Armenian people.


In Turkic and Russian press of the Eastern Transcaucasia at the end of the 19th century


Vardan A. Galstyan

Key words – Eastern Transcaucasia, Azerbaijan, Turkish-speaking people, Muslims, ethnic self-consciousness, “Ekindzhi”, “Keshkul”, “Terjuman” “Kaspiy”, Unsizade, Gasprinskiy, Shahtakhtinski.

In the end of the 19th century important changes took place in the life of Turkic speaking ethnic population of Eastern Transcaucasia. Due to literal activity of Mirza Fathali Akhundov and his followers, Turkic literary language and literature were formed. Under the influence of Turkic literature and western education a totally new class of intellectuals emerged. They studied in Russian, some of them in European educational centres, learned western languages and science. The next step of changes was the formation of Turkic press which eventually became the scene where new intellectuals shared their thoughts about ethnic consciousness of Turkic ethnos.

In this article are represented examples from Turkic and Russian press of the past quarter of the 19th century where Turkic speaking authors appeal to their ethnos. They called to refuse dominating religious self-identification of “muslims” and found the term “tatar” inaccurate as a name of Turkic ethnos of Transcaucasia. Under the influence of rising Panturkism in Russian empire they began to promote as ethnonym the artificial term “Azerbaijani” which was traditionally used for the region and people in the north of Iran.



Lyudvig G. Vardanyan Khachik A. Makyan

Key words – political culture, political system, political institution, politics, political consciousness, political orientation, political behavior.

The article deals with various questions of the origin and use of the term “political culture”, and the interpretation of the scientific concept. It presents the emergence of political culture, its separation as a kind of human culture associated with systemic knowledge about governance, policy and political life of society. The term “political culture” was first used by Johann Gerdeom in the second half of the 18th century, but in the modern Western political science literature it was first used by American political scientist Herman Finer. However, the theoretical basis and the complete concept of political culture were presented by American political scientists Gabriel Almond and Sidney Verba in the 50-60-ies of the twentieth century. The paper attempts to introduce various interpretations of political culture systematically.


The comparative analysis of 2005-2010 publications of “Asparez” (Los-Angeles), “Alik” (Tehran) and “Noev Kovcheg” (Moscow) periodicals


Syuzanna S. Barseghyan

Key words – diaspora, ethnic media, identity, ethnic and cultural values, content analysis.

Ethnic media is played an important role among the Diaspora’s traditional organizations created for preserving ethnic identity in foreign environment. The history of the Armenian Diaspora communities’ formation were accompanied by creation of a press. It was not only contribute to preservation and dissemination of ethnic and cultural values, but also played a significant role in everyday life of immigrants, in ethnic communities’ consolidation and self-organization process. In the current globalized and technological era ethnic media could assume a greater role to establish transnational communication network between homeland and diaspora communities and to form common system of values.

The aim of presented article is to show the role of ethnic media in the preservation of cultural and ethnic identity, in the processes of reproduction and dissemination of values. The article examines following research objectives: a) determine the impact of press on ethnic and cultural identity; b) evaluate the role of press in reproduction and dissemination of the ethnic and cultural values; c) find the special and general (local and global) ethnic values, symbols, myths and ideas spreaded by press.

The article examines comparative analysis of three ethnic press in Los Angeles (“Asbarez”), Tehran (“Alik”) and Moscow (“Noyev Kovcheg”). The study was conducted through content analysis method and included six years (2005-2010) publications of three periodicals.


Cultural Awareness in the Context of Media Experience


Mariam M. Karapetyan

Key words – cultural Awareness, Mass Culture, Mosaic Culture, Cultural Journalism, Cultural Proximity, Creativity, Modernity.

The article examines the problem of proximity of culture and modernity. The article focuses on the significant issue of the effectiveness of the bond of culture and cultural journalism on one hand and modernity on the other: how exactly do the Armenian TV channels produce contemporary cultural references or are they involved in the media production of modernity at all? And if they are, what kind of verbal and textual means do they use? The main question relates to the possible role of cultural journalism in overcoming the cultural alienation for Armenian society. Cultural journalism is presented as a sector of creativity with market issues. Explores the cultural journalism and two characteristic features of the modern world, relations of consumerism and creativity in the armenian context. An attempt was made to think about the media’s “mediation mission” possible “auxiliary content” (contexts of idea implementation, contexts of semantic perceptions) production, that can contribute to the creative and constructive words’ update. Particularly, the production of meanings of “culture’s mobility”, “variety”, “hypothetical situation”, “authorship” is addressed to the culture illustrating media. Theoretical inquiries are presented along with a number of practical ways to solve them.



Greta Y. Nikoghosyan

Keywords – Armenian literature, translations from the French, the second half of the XIX century, journal «Ararat», French Armenologists, French literature of classical period.

At the end of the 19th century the number of translations of European and especially French authors into Armenian greatly increased, respectively, the Armenian press of these years began to publish translations of foreign authors, in addition to original works. The magazine turned to the works of such great French authors like Antoine Jean de Saint-Martin, Blaise Pascal, Francois Rene de Chateaubriand, Jean de La Fontaine, Victor Hugo, Jacques Delille, Jacques Elisee Reclus and others. The works of French authors left some great influence on the Armenian language, literature and scientific thought in general, and the journal «Ararat» undoubtedly contributed to this process.


In the issue of the recognition of Armenian Genocide


Doctor Zhirayr A. Kocharyan (Berlin)

Keywords – Germany, the Armenian Genocide, the Bundestag, the First World War, Johannes Lepsius, honest umpire, recognition, Madame Merkel, refugees.

The response of German media (TV, radio) and the cultural, academic and human rights events at the occasion of centenary were extremely numerous and went above and beyond everything that Armenians in Germany were used to so far. In a parliamentary debate on April 24, 2015 representatives of all fractions made impressive speeches, in particular the President of the Bundestag Prof. Lammert, who clearly qualified and condemned the “events of 1915” as genocide.

Four factors seem to be instrumental for this qualitatively and quantitatively intensive statements: 1) the exemplary and significant speech by Pope Francis during a memorial service on April 12, 2015 2) the antipathy of parliamentary German opposition against the ruling conservatives, 3) an enhanced sense of history in the German majority society, and 4) the distancing from Erdoğan’s Neo-Ottoman policy.

The Bundestag is facing 15 years in a bid to recognize the genocide of the Armenians, i.e. to make a legally qualified vote in the spirit of the UN Genocide Convention. Whilst in 2005 the Bundestag unanimously adopted a resolution that admitted German co-responsibility, the German lawmakers avoided, at the same time, an own position whether the “expulsion” and “massacres” of 1915 qualify as a genocide.

The influence of the executive on the legislature, incompatible with the democratic principle of separation of powers, has an unfortunate tradition in Germany’s policy towards Turkey and Armenia: In 1915, Prime Minister Bethmann Hollweg prevented a critical distancing of his country from the Ottoman extermination policy, citing the priority of German-Ottoman military alliance. Although German political decision makers were better informed than other governments about destruction of Christian co-religionists in the allied Ottoman Empire, the German public was not allowed to know anything about these crimes. Until the end of World War I strict military censorship prevented any objective press reporting over Armenia and Turkey.

As a result of a century of silence, until this day there exists no comprehensive scientific review of precise German debt proportion in Germany. No German historian, no university has ever conducted research on this topic. The subject was entirely left to journalists and non-historians. In the increasingly pluralistic society of Germany, in which the descendants of the Muslim perpetrators and the oriental Christian victims live together now, scientific and political inaction bear negative results.


On the occasion of the 150th anniversary


Valeri A. Mirzoyan

Key words – Simon Zavaryan, diversity, minority, decentralization, democracy, self-government, power, liberty, participation, progress

In this article, theoretical heritage of Armenian prominent public figure Simon Zavaryan (1865–1913) is discussed in the frame of social-philosophical problems of democratization of public administration. Un particular, on the conditions of contemporary globalization, that reveals not only previously unprecedented opportunities for states of mutual enrichment by the experiences of public administration, but also could lead toward serious danger of loss cultural identities, in such conditions has exceptional importance the principle developed by Zavaryan on harmonious co-ordination of diversity and uniformity in the organization and management of public life. There are some other Zavaryan’s principles of socio-political characters – provision of real democracy by having regard to the opinion of the minority, creation of social institutions for deterrence of officials at different levels, amplification of local self-government bodies, deepening citizen motivation to participate on decision process of the widest possible problems of public administration.