Category Archives: REVIEWS

Ruben Safrastyan, Mustafa Kemal; The Fight Against the Republic of Armenia in 1919-1921 – 2019-4


Gevorg S. Khoudinyan
Although, over the past 100 years, the Soviet, post-Soviet, and Diaspora Armenian historiography has repeatedly touched upon separate episodes of the life and activities of Mustafa Kemal – the founder of the republican Turkey, including the history of the irreconcilable struggle against Armenia in 1919-1921, for a number of objective and subjective reasons no scientific view on that prominent political and military figure has been formed within us. The reason is that in the Soviet era we faced political barriers fed by the traditions of the Lenin-Ataturk friendship, and in the post-Soviet years the reality of insufficient study of sources and the lack of a certain concept of perception of historical-political processes in us. Almost the same superficiality and one-sidedness has been observed among Diaspora Armenian scholars, who have relied mainly on limited information about Mustafa Kemal in western sources.

Since the restoration of independence of Armenia, our historiography in assessing the life and activities of Mustafa Kemal should not continue to be guided by reconciliatory characterizations of the Soviet era, or merely a damnatory’s propagandistic mental pattern based on moral principles. In the process of building our own independent statehood, the scientific study of Turkey’s rich state-political traditions becomes paramount, leaving aside the starting points of worldviews on reconciliation and moral condemnation stemming from their concealed belief of the impossibility of achieving and surpassing them. Today we need to know, recognize, and understand the great and small secrets of our adversary’s successes over the last two centuries, so that tomorrow we can find the tools to counter them. On the basement of all this first of all lies the scientific task of comprehensive study of the life and activities of politician and statesman Kemal Ataturk.

In this regard prof. Ruben Safrastyan’s brochure entitled “Mustafa Kemal. The Fight Against the Republic of Armenia in 1919-1921” though not of a large volume, however is quite full of extensive questions and statements of issues and is in fact the first bold attempt. The author has succeeded in finding a clear inheritance link between the Young Turks responsible for the Armenian Genocide and the new Turkish leader who appeared in the political stage concealing their crime after the Armistice of Mudros. This has revealed one of the most essential principles of Turkey’s state policy to distinguish itself from the crimes committed by previous administrations and those already uncovered, but at the same time continuing to act with new methods under new conditions.

Therefore we think that in just a few months Mustafa Kemal’s conversion from the word “fazahat” condemning the Armenian Genocide to the genocidal vocabulary of the Young Turks on the eve of the 1920 autumn attack on the Republic of Armenia was not an expression of ordinary hypocrisy, as the author claims, but a shift in the toolkit of permanent expansionism characteristic of Turkish state policy. In the political statements of the past and present state officials of Turkey it is pointless to seek political principles with their western understanding; the latter have served and serve as instruments appropriate to this particular milestone of expansionism. In this context, criticism does not stand up to the assessment of the Turkish National Covenant carried out by Soviet scholars at the time as an attempt to cross the broad borders of the Ottoman Empire to the narrow boundaries of national statehood. The nation-state model adopted by Mustafa Kemal was, in fact, an attempt to modernize traditional forms and methods of Turkish expansionism, at the first destination of which its kernel was formed, with the unification of Anatolia and Western Armenia, but at the same time they mined the next zones of expansion outlined around it towards Syria, Cyprus, Thrace, Iranian Atrpatakan (Iranian Azerbaijan), Eastern Armenia and Western and Southern Georgia.

In this context, the author was able to reveal the secret instruction of Foreign Minister Mukhtar Bey on November 8, 1920 to the Commander of the Turkish Army Kâzım Karabekir on the “elimination” of the Republic of Armenia, which was one of the tangible manifestations of this process. The gradual demolition of Armenia inwardly and putting into game the existing Turkic ethnic enclaves for the purpose of its occupation had already been successfully completed in Kars and Nakhijevan, but had failed in Zangibassar and Vedi. In the Soviet period too, Turkey adopted a similar policy towards Armenia, which continued until the Karabakh movement. It is no coincidence, therefore, that they were not as angry in Baku about the departure of Azerbaijanis from Armenia as they were in Ankara. This policy continues today, with Turkey’s prompting to Azerbaijan concerning the latter’s manifested pretensions towards Zangezur, “Gökçe” and even “Irevan”.

NOTABLE WORK, On the Losses of Armenian People as the Result of the Genocide and the Methodological Grounds of Compensation Structure – 2019-3


Lilit Hr. Hovhannisyan

Recently an extensive work entitled ʻThe Losses of Armenian People in the Result of the Genocide and the Methodological Grounds of Compensation Structureʼ intended for the wide framework of people interested in the problems of the history of Armenian Genocide and Armenian claims, students and readers has been published. In its seven sections the political, economic and demographic consequences of Armenian Genocide are elucidated, the sizes of losses of the Armenian people in various fields of human activities are clarified, the ways of overcoming the consequences of the Genocide are outlined.

In particular, NAS RA Academician Ashot Melkonyan has thoroughly studied the process of international recognition of the Armenian Genocide and the issue of compensation in both historical, international-legal, as well as, political science dimensions.

The other authors of the collective work – NAS RA Academician Gevorg Poghosyan and Candidate of Sciences in History Gegham Badalyan, have carried out the study of the human losses of Armenian people in the result of the Genocide and its demographic consequences.

NAS RA Corresponding member Ararat Aghasyan has presented the irrecoverable losses of Armenian medieval architectural monuments, handwritten illustrated manuscripts kept in Armenian monasteries and churches, frescos, icons, bas-relief, khachkars and gravestones, values of applied art and secular fine arts in Western Armenia and the other territories of the Ottoman Empire in the result of Hamidian massacres and Mets Yeghern, as well as, the continuing policy of the destruction of Armenian cultural heritage in the Republic of Turkey.

Doctor of Sciences in Architecture Davit Qertmenjyan has studied the policy of the destruction of Armenian historical-architectural monuments during the Armenian Genocide and its consequences from the perspective of compensation issues for cultural genocide.

In the framework of the collective work Doctor of Sciences in History Armen Maruqyan has presented property and financial losses of Armenian people because of the Genocide and its consequences. He has also classified and systematized the section referring to practical suggestions of mechanisms and tools for overcoming the consequences of the Armenian Genocide.

Geologist Hayk Melik-Adamyan has studied the questions of depriving the indigenous Armenian people of exploitation of the mineral resources through the implementation of the Armenian Genocide in Western Armenia and its consequences, evaluated the degree of economic effectiveness of extraction of those resources.

Orientalist Anush Hovhannisyan has studied the process of deprivation of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire and its continuation by the Republic of Turkey revealing its negative effect on the Armenians who remained in the territory of Turkey.

Lawyer Vladimir Vardanyan has presented the international-legal possibilities of bringing the Turkish state to political responsibility for the Armenian Genocide and overcoming the consequences of the crime.

Thus, the collective work ʻThe Losses of Armenian People in the Result of the Genocide and the Methodological Grounds of Compensation Structureʼ not only reflects the accumulated knowledge on the Armenian Genocide in the field of Armenology, but also can greatly contribute to designing pan-Armenian agenda for overcoming its consequences.

Henrik Edoyan: Light on the left, Yerevan, “Zangak” publishing housе, 2018, 150 pages. – 20192


Suren S. Abrahamyan

Key words – Henrik Edoyan, Paul Valerie, the Road, polytheism, language-location, view, poetics, system, time, book, culture.

The article discusses the collection of “Light on the Left” by Henrik Edoyan, evaluates collection’s literary significance in its second cycle, which has started from “Three Days without Time” (2005) collection and continues till now. The main issue of the collection, that author rises, is the question of the book that develops the integrity of Edoyan’s poetical system, as well as the unity of poetics and worldview. Hence, the analyzer not only evaluates Edoyan’s new collection as the formation of historical poetry, but also appreciates Edoyan’s poetry in the modern literary process.

Rodney Dakessian, The legal effects of mass murder of Armenians in 1915 and their possible ways of judicial and extra-judicial resolution, Yerevan, “PRINTINFO”, 2015, 416 page. – 2016-2


Armen Ts. Marukyan

Keywords – Armenian Genocide, the Treaty of Sèvres, codify, issue of compensation, International Court of Justice, the resolution for clemency, experiments

On the eve and during the 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide, doctoral thesis of the lawyer R. Dakessian on the legal basis of overcoming the consequences of the crime, which he defended in Lyon, was published as a book in the Armenian language in Armenia.

Dakessian’s work is mainly based on the writings of Western thinkers in the field of law, and it almost fully ignored Armenian sources. As to the works of the international lawyer and specialist in international law Yu. Barsegov, the author has completely ignored his contribution to this issue. Such a unilateral choice of authors and sources caused not only conflicting opinions and views in Dakessian’s work, but also led to the actual and conceptual mistakes.

The publication of Dakessian’s work is a signal that on the eve of the 100th anniversary of Armenian Genocide, though taking Pan-Armenian Declaration and creating a special committee of lawyers to overcome the consequences of the Genocide, the Republic of Armenia, nevertheless, does not systemize the work in this direction to create a common approach and to prevent such kind of initiative. Of course, we do not approve censorship, but we must be aware of the fact that the legal issue of the Armenian Genocide is not an ordinary academic question. This is very important not only for the Republic of Armenia, but it is a matter of national security for all Armenians hence similar experiments on this matter are not only unacceptable, but also should be condemned.

Gayane Arakelyan, The Photography Art of Andranik Kochar Yer., “Tigran Mets” publishing house, 2018, 144 pages, 88 images. – 2019-1


Shushanik G. Zohrabyan (Paris)

Key words – Andranik Kochar, founder of Armenian Photography, artistic photography, master of portrait, black and white photography, architectural monuments.

In 2018, “Tigran Mets” Publishing House published an illustrated book by Gayane Arakelyan entitled “The Photographic Art of Andranik Kochar”.

The main goal of the scientific work is to sanctify the forgotten heritage of the photographic art of the great master Andranik Kochar (1919-1984) and show his significant role in the development of Armenian photography.

Gayane Arakelyan’s monograph is based on the research she has conducted for more than 10 years.

The result of this research was the PhD thesis on the art of A. Kochar, reports, numerous articles published in various newspapers and magazines: “Etchmiadzin”, “Lraber” and “Vem”. This monograph is an addition to all the above mentioned editions.

Albert Makaryan, Again with Paronyan (new reading), Yer., “Antares”, 2018, 306 p. – 2019-1


Suren D. Danielyan Knarik A. Abrahamyan

Key words – Western Armenian literature, Hakop Paronyan, satire, genre, portrait, dramaturgy, essay, novel, children’s literature, literary criticism.

Literary critic Albert Makaryan has spent a lot of time to explore the different sides of creativity of the most outstanding West Armenian writer and playwright Hakop Paronyan. А. Makaryan’s new book is continuing the progressive development of good old-fashioned subject, “with new reading” in the newest time, to which questions this article by S. Danielyan and K. Abrahamyan is devoted.

Sergey Aghajanyan, Midday – 2018-3


Davit V. Petrosyan

Key words – prose, collection, literary text, struggling individual, philosophical glance, psychology, hero.

The review analyzes and evaluates the literary peculiarities of the stories and novelettes enclosed in the collection “Midday” by Sergey Aghajanyan. It states the significance of artistic mentality perceived in aesthetic structures of the prose-writer. The latter creates distinctive works in prose through comparison of visualization system of material presentation. The heroes of Aghajanyan are mostly struggling individuals: at the fatal moments of life they sometimes lose and sometimes reaffirm their individualism. The author presents all these by giving an important place to the nuances that are opened in their inner world.



Armen S. Asryan

Key words – liberation, individuality, work, Aram Manukyan, Western Armenia, weapon, ammunition, collection, people, motherland, ARF Dashnaktsutyun, letters.

On the occasion of 100 Anniversery Republic of Armenia the collection entitled “Aram Manukyan: Collection of Letters” is presented to the Armenian reader for the first time. It includes 354 letters by the famous freedom fighter of Armenian liberation movement, the founder of the First Republic Aram Manukyan written from November 1904 up to 1915: 325 letters are published for the first time. The collection is comprised, edited and commented by the historian YervandPambukyan, who has exercised a really tremendous , hard and thankful work dedicating to this job 14 long and tough years. Though Aram’s manuscripts are rather beautiful and legible but the deciphering of his letters’ numerous codes and digital cryptograms, the revelation of revolutionary pseudonyms, the commenting of forgottentoponymswritten in foreign language and personal names is, indeed, the hardest task and does need diligent work. Comments that are accompanying the collection from beginning up to the end have greatly eased the perception of the letters by simultaneously accomplishing the transmitted information. Aram Manukyan’s letters included in the reviewed collection were found from ARF Dashnaktsutyun’s archives in far off city of Boston.

The History of Armenian periodicals. 1920-1922, volume 2, Yerevan, Institute of History NAS RA, 2017, 787 pages. – 2018-1


David V. Petrosyan

Key words – Eastern-Armenian press, Western-Armenian press, historical-analytical method, research, structure, periodical press, thematic department, title, parties.

The review has considered a number of issues related to the content, structure and themes of the second volume of the recently published “History of Armenian Periodicals.” The work is noteworthy for clear structural divisions, a concept developed to represent the importance and significance of a largescale project.

Apart from referring to the well-known periodicals of Eastern and Western Armenians, the volume also represents and depicts in different chapters the Armenian press in the Armenian colonies (Egypt, France, Bulgaria, Iran, the USA) and parties, most of which are unknown to the reader.

Through the combination of general observations and specific descriptions typical for the historical – philological method, the book presents the complete picture of the Armenian press in the first two decades of the 20th century.

Zhenya Kalantaryan, Literary criticism as Practical Literary Studies: Textbook. YSU: YSU Publishing House, 2017. 209 p – 2017-4


Tigran S. Simyan

Key words – textbook, paradigm of education, change of paradigm, change of educational paradigm, Armenian-writing textbook of theory of literature, theory of literature, literary criticism, introduction to literary studies.

The purpose of the annotation is to comprehend and evaluate in diachrony the training manual „Literary Criticism as Practical Literary Studies“ by Zhenya Kalantaryan in the context of the Armenian-language discourse of textbooks of the Soviet and postSoviet period, as well as to show the novelty and innovation of this publication. A brief overview of Armenian-language textbooks at the „Literature Theory“ course or „Introduction to Literary Sdudies“ showed that textbooks of the Soviet era were politicized, often the prblematics were dictated „from above“. In the 1990‘s. these textbooks were confirmed by the Revision. After the collapse of the USSR, Zaven Avetisyan and David / Mher Gasparyan were presented in their textbooks teaching aids in a context of the course „Introduction to Literary Studies“ in a much new way, visualized, structured and apolitical (but fast with the same problems). 2016 in the collective textbook „Contemporary problems of the Theory of Literature“, in comparison with the previous experience, metalanguage concepts were presented much more “hot” („Basic concepts of narratology“), etc. Study book of Zhenya Kalantaryan „Literary Criticism as Practical Literary Studies“is, according to the author of the annotation, one of the important events in the Armenian-language discourse of teaching aids, since the problematics and metalanguage of Literary Criticism are presented in a much “hot” way. Such a toolkit creates all the comfort to provide young scientists and students with new opportunities for a more innovative, strategically correct and systematic analysis of artistic texts. In addition, the composition of the textbook Zh. Kalantaryan is presented in the review, as well as the relationship between the part and the whole, the composition and the title of the textbook.