Gagik G. Danielyan
Key words – Mamluk Sultanate, Mongols, Il-khanate, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, Ketbugha, Hetum I, Bohemond VI, Qutuz, Baybars, Armenian-Mamluk relations.
In the middle of the XIII century important events occurred in Egypt that changed drastically the political situation not only in Egypt, but in the Middle East as a whole. In 1250, as a result of the overthrow of the Ayyūbid dynasty, the Mamlūks seized the power in Cairo and established the Mamlūk Sultanate (1250-1517). A few years later, another great political power came into existence in the region – the Mongol Il-khanate of Persia (1256-1335). The Cilician Armenian Kingdom, which had already submitted to Mongol suzerainty, was also involved into a constant struggle between the two states. In 1260 king Het’um tооk an active part in the Mongol invasion of Syria led by Hulegu. However, after the Mongol defeat at ’Ayn Ğālūt, the Mongol-Armenian alliance became the main reason for strained relations between Cilician Armenia and the Mamlūk Sultanate, that soon developed into a direct military confrontation.