Category Archives: SCIENTIFIC



Armen.Ts. Marukyan

Key words – Overcoming of consequences of the Armenian Genocide, Road map, Republic of Armenia, Armenian Diaspora, Ottoman Empire, Turkey, Arbitral award of Woodrow Wilson, Treaty of Sevres, Treaty of Lausanne.

Recently have begun to extend opinions on allegedly impossibility of process of overcoming consequences of the Armenian Genocide because of lack of mechanisms and methods of realization of this process have begun to extend. Willy-nilly the problem becomes primitive by similar reasonings, discussion of a question is transferred to unscientific, household level, than, in fact, the idea of compensation for the Armenian Genocide depreciates. Meanwhile, if not to go into extremes and to be guided by realistic concepts, then it is quite possible to find rational solutions of this problem. On the basis of historic facts, norms and the principles of international law, and also in particular on a precedent on which compensation to the Jewish people for Holocaust consequences is still carried out, it is quite possible to develop certain tools, methods and mechanisms of realization also of compensation for Genocide to the Armenian people. In this article are offered certain methods and mechanisms of overcoming territorial, cultural and civilization, material, and also moral and psychological consequences of Genocide made concerning the Armenian people.


In Turkic and Russian press of the Eastern Transcaucasia at the end of the 19th century


Vardan A. Galstyan

Key words – Eastern Transcaucasia, Azerbaijan, Turkish-speaking people, Muslims, ethnic self-consciousness, “Ekindzhi”, “Keshkul”, “Terjuman” “Kaspiy”, Unsizade, Gasprinskiy, Shahtakhtinski.

In the end of the 19th century important changes took place in the life of Turkic speaking ethnic population of Eastern Transcaucasia. Due to literal activity of Mirza Fathali Akhundov and his followers, Turkic literary language and literature were formed. Under the influence of Turkic literature and western education a totally new class of intellectuals emerged. They studied in Russian, some of them in European educational centres, learned western languages and science. The next step of changes was the formation of Turkic press which eventually became the scene where new intellectuals shared their thoughts about ethnic consciousness of Turkic ethnos.

In this article are represented examples from Turkic and Russian press of the past quarter of the 19th century where Turkic speaking authors appeal to their ethnos. They called to refuse dominating religious self-identification of “muslims” and found the term “tatar” inaccurate as a name of Turkic ethnos of Transcaucasia. Under the influence of rising Panturkism in Russian empire they began to promote as ethnonym the artificial term “Azerbaijani” which was traditionally used for the region and people in the north of Iran.



Lyudvig G. Vardanyan Khachik A. Makyan

Key words – political culture, political system, political institution, politics, political consciousness, political orientation, political behavior.

The article deals with various questions of the origin and use of the term “political culture”, and the interpretation of the scientific concept. It presents the emergence of political culture, its separation as a kind of human culture associated with systemic knowledge about governance, policy and political life of society. The term “political culture” was first used by Johann Gerdeom in the second half of the 18th century, but in the modern Western political science literature it was first used by American political scientist Herman Finer. However, the theoretical basis and the complete concept of political culture were presented by American political scientists Gabriel Almond and Sidney Verba in the 50-60-ies of the twentieth century. The paper attempts to introduce various interpretations of political culture systematically.


The comparative analysis of 2005-2010 publications of “Asparez” (Los-Angeles), “Alik” (Tehran) and “Noev Kovcheg” (Moscow) periodicals


Syuzanna S. Barseghyan

Key words – diaspora, ethnic media, identity, ethnic and cultural values, content analysis.

Ethnic media is played an important role among the Diaspora’s traditional organizations created for preserving ethnic identity in foreign environment. The history of the Armenian Diaspora communities’ formation were accompanied by creation of a press. It was not only contribute to preservation and dissemination of ethnic and cultural values, but also played a significant role in everyday life of immigrants, in ethnic communities’ consolidation and self-organization process. In the current globalized and technological era ethnic media could assume a greater role to establish transnational communication network between homeland and diaspora communities and to form common system of values.

The aim of presented article is to show the role of ethnic media in the preservation of cultural and ethnic identity, in the processes of reproduction and dissemination of values. The article examines following research objectives: a) determine the impact of press on ethnic and cultural identity; b) evaluate the role of press in reproduction and dissemination of the ethnic and cultural values; c) find the special and general (local and global) ethnic values, symbols, myths and ideas spreaded by press.

The article examines comparative analysis of three ethnic press in Los Angeles (“Asbarez”), Tehran (“Alik”) and Moscow (“Noyev Kovcheg”). The study was conducted through content analysis method and included six years (2005-2010) publications of three periodicals.


Cultural Awareness in the Context of Media Experience


Mariam M. Karapetyan

Key words – cultural Awareness, Mass Culture, Mosaic Culture, Cultural Journalism, Cultural Proximity, Creativity, Modernity.

The article examines the problem of proximity of culture and modernity. The article focuses on the significant issue of the effectiveness of the bond of culture and cultural journalism on one hand and modernity on the other: how exactly do the Armenian TV channels produce contemporary cultural references or are they involved in the media production of modernity at all? And if they are, what kind of verbal and textual means do they use? The main question relates to the possible role of cultural journalism in overcoming the cultural alienation for Armenian society. Cultural journalism is presented as a sector of creativity with market issues. Explores the cultural journalism and two characteristic features of the modern world, relations of consumerism and creativity in the armenian context. An attempt was made to think about the media’s “mediation mission” possible “auxiliary content” (contexts of idea implementation, contexts of semantic perceptions) production, that can contribute to the creative and constructive words’ update. Particularly, the production of meanings of “culture’s mobility”, “variety”, “hypothetical situation”, “authorship” is addressed to the culture illustrating media. Theoretical inquiries are presented along with a number of practical ways to solve them.



Greta Y. Nikoghosyan

Keywords – Armenian literature, translations from the French, the second half of the XIX century, journal «Ararat», French Armenologists, French literature of classical period.

At the end of the 19th century the number of translations of European and especially French authors into Armenian greatly increased, respectively, the Armenian press of these years began to publish translations of foreign authors, in addition to original works. The magazine turned to the works of such great French authors like Antoine Jean de Saint-Martin, Blaise Pascal, Francois Rene de Chateaubriand, Jean de La Fontaine, Victor Hugo, Jacques Delille, Jacques Elisee Reclus and others. The works of French authors left some great influence on the Armenian language, literature and scientific thought in general, and the journal «Ararat» undoubtedly contributed to this process.


In the issue of the recognition of Armenian Genocide


Doctor Zhirayr A. Kocharyan (Berlin)

Keywords – Germany, the Armenian Genocide, the Bundestag, the First World War, Johannes Lepsius, honest umpire, recognition, Madame Merkel, refugees.

The response of German media (TV, radio) and the cultural, academic and human rights events at the occasion of centenary were extremely numerous and went above and beyond everything that Armenians in Germany were used to so far. In a parliamentary debate on April 24, 2015 representatives of all fractions made impressive speeches, in particular the President of the Bundestag Prof. Lammert, who clearly qualified and condemned the “events of 1915” as genocide.

Four factors seem to be instrumental for this qualitatively and quantitatively intensive statements: 1) the exemplary and significant speech by Pope Francis during a memorial service on April 12, 2015 2) the antipathy of parliamentary German opposition against the ruling conservatives, 3) an enhanced sense of history in the German majority society, and 4) the distancing from Erdoğan’s Neo-Ottoman policy.

The Bundestag is facing 15 years in a bid to recognize the genocide of the Armenians, i.e. to make a legally qualified vote in the spirit of the UN Genocide Convention. Whilst in 2005 the Bundestag unanimously adopted a resolution that admitted German co-responsibility, the German lawmakers avoided, at the same time, an own position whether the “expulsion” and “massacres” of 1915 qualify as a genocide.

The influence of the executive on the legislature, incompatible with the democratic principle of separation of powers, has an unfortunate tradition in Germany’s policy towards Turkey and Armenia: In 1915, Prime Minister Bethmann Hollweg prevented a critical distancing of his country from the Ottoman extermination policy, citing the priority of German-Ottoman military alliance. Although German political decision makers were better informed than other governments about destruction of Christian co-religionists in the allied Ottoman Empire, the German public was not allowed to know anything about these crimes. Until the end of World War I strict military censorship prevented any objective press reporting over Armenia and Turkey.

As a result of a century of silence, until this day there exists no comprehensive scientific review of precise German debt proportion in Germany. No German historian, no university has ever conducted research on this topic. The subject was entirely left to journalists and non-historians. In the increasingly pluralistic society of Germany, in which the descendants of the Muslim perpetrators and the oriental Christian victims live together now, scientific and political inaction bear negative results.


On the occasion of the 150th anniversary


Valeri A. Mirzoyan

Key words – Simon Zavaryan, diversity, minority, decentralization, democracy, self-government, power, liberty, participation, progress

In this article, theoretical heritage of Armenian prominent public figure Simon Zavaryan (1865–1913) is discussed in the frame of social-philosophical problems of democratization of public administration. Un particular, on the conditions of contemporary globalization, that reveals not only previously unprecedented opportunities for states of mutual enrichment by the experiences of public administration, but also could lead toward serious danger of loss cultural identities, in such conditions has exceptional importance the principle developed by Zavaryan on harmonious co-ordination of diversity and uniformity in the organization and management of public life. There are some other Zavaryan’s principles of socio-political characters – provision of real democracy by having regard to the opinion of the minority, creation of social institutions for deterrence of officials at different levels, amplification of local self-government bodies, deepening citizen motivation to participate on decision process of the widest possible problems of public administration.


On the example of the Armenian media texts


David V. Petrosyan

Dialogical relationship between a journalist (author) and an external addressee in media texts develops in a very interesting way. If during a direct dialogue with external addresses journalist uses some role behavior: creates a direct connection with the reader, the elements of direct dialogue with the external addressee, etc., than the presence of over external addressees in the texts contributes to the creation of an atmosphere of understanding with external addressees. And while direct contact between journalist and external addressee, each party can become an author or a reader, as intertextual dialogues are conducted at several levels: author-author, internal addressee – author, internal addressee – another author, and so on.



Tigran R. Yepremyan

The paper discusses Hugo Grotius’ international political thoughts and their influence on the formation of constructivist thinking in international relations from the perspective of modern constructivism. In relation to Grotius’ thought different constructivist approaches to international politics are taken into consideration. Therefore, the paper proceeds with the conceptualization of the influence of Grotius’ political thought on the theory and practice of international relations in the light of constructivism and speech act theory. Hence, Grotius’ idealistic and holistic approach towards nations and society of nations is regarded within the framework of Alexander Wendt’s theory of structural constructivism. According to these approaches, nations (states) are constructed with common beliefs and organizational structures that give them territorial monopoly of legitimate violence. This comprehensive perspective allows us better understand the evolution of holist and structuralist theories of international relations and Grotius’ role in the formation of constructivist theories in international relations.