According to M. Bakhtin’s and Yu. Tinyanov’s research
The main aspects of the theory of genre studies by Yu. Tinyanov and M. Bakhtin are analyzed in the article. The conclusions concerning the genre made by the two great theorists are considered to be an acquisition of new literary criticism, comparing with traditional literary criticism and existing theoretical traditional views on genre as such.
A special interpretation is given to primary and secondary genres advanced by M. Bakhtin. The first ones are considered as primary genres, which exist since ancient times and the secondary ones as relatively new phenomena. The concept of chronotope is particularly analyzed within these differentiations as an essential relationship of temporal and spatial relations, which are artistically developed in the literature. The author concludes that the key novelty of Bakhtin is to describe the adventure chronotope in the transformation of space and time and opportunity to move them in space. Considering the theoretical views of Tinyanov about the genre, the author focuses on the two most important factors that are put forward by them in understanding the genre: the historicity and the evolutionism, through which the genre is considered to be a moving phenomenon.