Category Archives: LITERARY CRITICISM

THE ISSUES ON THE NATURE OF ARMENIAN VERSE – 2018-1

Summary

Ashkhen E. Jrbashyan

Key words – versification, metrics, numerical verse, dimensional verse, accentuated verse, “Armenian metre”, metric foot, stress, poetical member.

The article attempts for the first time to systemize and present the general picture and fundamental issues of Armenian metrics of Pre-Abeghyan period which includes 18th century and the early 20th century. The author justifies the fact that already in 18th -19th centuries there were serious preconditions for the formation of Armenian metrics which were connected with the development of grammatology, as well as, with the enrichment of main artistic experience and enhancement of translation literature. The Armenian versifiers of that period revealed not only the nature of Old Armenian and Medieval verse but also the nature of the new verse composed in ashkharabar (New Armenian language): they also pointed the influences of other languages on Armenian metrics. These all factors created some preconditions for the further serious studies of versification.

ARMENIAN LEXICOGRAPHY FROM THE SECOND HALF OF THE XVIII CENTURY AND THE COLOPHONS OF THE ARMENIAN MANUSCRIPTS – 2017-4

Summary

Khachik A. Harutyunyan

Key words – scribes, lexicography, word formation structures, historical lexicology, Classical Armenian, Middle Armenian.

Armenian manuscripts are rich in colophons which provide abundant material for dictionaries covering different periods of the development of Armenian language. In this article, we examine the relationship between Armenian dictionaries and colophons, which we present in three groups: a. words, which are known to dictionaries only from the colophons. b. words, which are known to dictionaries in one example, but the colophonsgive other testimonies. c. words attested in dictionaries, the older usages of which we find in the colophons of the Armenian manuscripts. A number of new words that are not attested in Armenian dictionaries is also presented with the study of their formation structures.

THE SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF GENDER – 2017-4

Summary

Marine D. Ghazaryan

Key words – “The Humbles”, qoqur, love, sex, gender, psychological identification, woman, waiting, dream, reality, inner drama.

The Armenian diaspora writer Hagop Oshagan had a number of significant principles, to perceive and illustrate reality, one of which was based on the absolutization of sex. The best examples of viewing literature in this regard, is the collection “The Humbles” (1920). In “The Humbles” Oshagan mostly created characters of a certain human type – that of the poor, the wretched, and the mad, ones who he called with the generalized name of qoqur. Qoqurs are individuals, who due to mental, physical impairments, or by the whim of fate have become qoqurs from within. Qoqurs, created by Oshagan, are mainly men deprived of assumed male traits. The society was not willing to give these men a wife, and this is where their drama unfolds. As every society has certain cultural norms that shape the gender relations in the society, we have interpreted Oshakan’s characters, behavior from socialcultural aspects. At the beginning of the 20th century when in the scientific vocabulary there was no distinction between “sex” and “gender” terms, on the example of his heroes the writer shows the gender is related to society expectations and is not just a biological issue. Although gender was mentioned back in different works written in the 1300s, however the terms “gender” and “sex” were coined in the scientific terminology in 1950s. Whether Oshakan was aware of them or not is difficulat to say since there is no word “gender” in any of the stories. But the fact that the author realized the difference between biological and psychological sexes is obvious. This fact allows us to claim that the ability to depict the unconscious aesthetically is typical of Oshakan as a writer.

FOLLOWING THE TRACES OF RENDERINGS OF A FAMOUS TALE – 2017-4

Summary

Albert A. Makaryan
Astghik V. Soghoyan

Key words – tale, code, symbol, plot, Ch. Perrault, Brothers Grimm, “Little Red Riding Hood”, Hovh. Tumanyan, “Karmrik” (The Reddish) , H. Paronyan, “The Red Varduk (Rosette)”.

The article is dedicated to the study of versions and elaborations of rendering-translations of the worldwide known tale “Little Red Riding Hood”. It examines the folklore versions of the tale (“Stab Peter’s Hardships”, “Grandmother’s Story”) and elaborations by Charles Perrault and Brothers Grimm. But the main emphasis of the study is put upon genius humorist writer Hakob Pa¬ron¬yan’s free translation-rendering carried out on Charles Perrault’s version. It is stated that each of the versions bears its philosophy of time and place and the internal stamp left by the interpreter or by the author. Hakob Paronyan, for instance, staying close to the main plot and ending of the original version adapts the work to the Armenian child’s taste and psychology and by using certain lingo stylistic peculiarities and changes, transmits national color to the notable tale, eliminating the existing sexual subtext.

THE PROBLEM OF GENRE TRANSFORMATION – 2017-3

Summary

G. K. Shashikyan

Key words – narratology, narrator, text, intertextuality, paratextuality, metatextuality, hypertextuality, architextuality, Aghasi Ayvazyan, Objective-18.

The article analyzes the book «Objective-18» by Aghasi Ayvazyan as an interesting example of knowingly cited quotes (exact or modified, when a text or part of a text refers to or mentions another text or part of a text) from one’s own and other authors’ texts. In literary works, as well as in any type of text, the title and the epigraph have most important functions due to the place they take; they express the author’s position and guide the reader, they create an intertextual link, change the meaning of the text or give it a new meaning, serve as hints for coming events and so on. The author of the article examines the internal connections between the title, the epigraph and the text, which led to the transformation of the genre.

THE «LATE» VAZGEN SHUSHANIAN – 2017-3

Summary

Nelly A. Tadevosyan

Key words – Western and Diaspora literature, the «pagan» literarymovement, Daniel Varuzhan, VazgenShushanian, HambardzumAraqelyan, «O, Lalage», criticism, worship of beauty, romanticism.

The article presents the main concepts of the «pagan» literary movement, particularly, the positive influence of the movement leader, great Western-Armenian writer Daniel Varuzhan on French-Armenian novelist Vazgen Shushanian’s creative system. Examining V. Shushanian’s «Gentle Letters of Spring Love» and «Summer Nights» we attempt to demonstrate the deep literary relationship between the two artists, along with analyzing D. Varuzhan’s «pagan» heritage program.

THE WORD IN CHARENTS’ “I LOVE MY DEAR ARMENIA…” POEM – 2017-2

Summary 

Tadevos V. Tonoyan

Key words – words, context, textual logic, contextual logic, abstract, tangible symbols.

Charents’s attitude toward word (language) is one of the main realities in Armenian lingual-thinking and value system. Due to intertextual logic, it was considered for a while that in the text of Charents there was the word “harvest” instead of the word “word”. It is understandable that the “harvest” is a more tangible symbol than the “word”. However, in the context of the Armenian language, the word “word” seems more logical.

HAKOB PARONYAN AND ARISTOTLE – 2017-2

Sammary

Arsen M. Gljyan

Key words – Paronyan, Aristotle, philosopher, culture, Aristophanes, tragedy, comedy, mimesis, catharsis, Goldoni, Boileau, Moliere, Shakespeare.

Paronyan, like Goethe, understood that it is necessary to learn from Shakespeare, Moliere, Boileau, but above all among the ancient Greeks, since their knowledge and experience are an important criterion for humanity. He learned a lot, studying ancient Greek mythology, legends and myths, as well as the heritage of artists and theorists of art. Among the theorists of Greek art, Paronian’s special attention was attracted especally to Aristotle. Artists of the Ancient World – Homer, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides and others, reviving the appropriate artistic forms, made the theory of classical folklore of a more serious nature, and Aristotle summed up the experience and ideas of all of them.

Paronyan learned a lot from Aristotle, but never imitated him. The younger generations are generally involved in literary culture, appropriating the experience and knowledge of various cultures, but they compose on the basis of a clear understanding of folklore, which is the result of a person’s psychologic development. Paronyan, having passed through the Aristotelian readings, using his knowledge as a methodological index, built his own individuality and created his immortal works on his own heights of the folklore genre.

THE EXISTENTIAL INTERPRETATIONS OF THE SYMBOL OF THE WALL – 2017-1

In the works of J.-P. Sartre, K. Abe, L. Khechoyan and G. Khanjyan

Summary

Ruzanna R. Voskanyan

Key words – symbol of the wall, archetype, collective unconscious, existentialism, loneliness, absurdity, despair, God, personality, comparative analysis.

This article explores the symbol of the wall from the position of existentialism philosophy. The author uses comparative analysis to similar works entitled “The Wall” by J.-P. Sartre, K. Abe, L. Khechoyan and G. Khanjyan. The wall is investigated as symbol of despair, understanding of the meaninglessness of existence, the absurdity of life, loneliness, overcoming oneself and other realities. The fact that the symbol of the wall is used and interpreted almost identically by the authors living in different time periods and in various countries, allows us to admit the archetype of the wall.

COINCIDENCE OF BIOGRAPHY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SHAKESPEARE’S HORATIO AND THE ROMAN POET HORACE – 2017-1

Summary

Ara H. Yernjakyan

Key words – Shakespeare, Horatio, Horace, Maecenas, Brutus, Hamlet, Stoicism.

Comparing basic moments of life of ancient Roman poet Quintus Horatius Flaccus, his work, outlook at life, they are surprisingly common with the character of classmate and friend of Hamlet – Horatio.

They both received good education, both gravitated towards the philosophy of Stoicism, both lived discreetly. Severe trials befallen on the Roman poet did not forge a fighter out of him. To a certain extent, this also concerns Horatio.

In addition to these and other facts, one can review the famous characteristics given by Hamlet to his friend on the eve of the palace play as a kind of hint by the playwright in choosing the poet Horace as the prototype of Horatio.