On the occasion of the 80th anniversary of the poet


Suren S. Abrahamyan
The poem “Requiem” published in 1969 is the most significant work in Razmik Davoyan’s poetic legacy. That is one of the masterpieces of Armenian poetry of the last half-century which expresses the way of development of the poetry of the post-Sevak period whose worldview, poetics is extremely complex and has not yet been analyzed. Therefore, this analysis is the first literary attempt that offers a unique starting point for interpretation.

In general, Davoyan’s way of poetry, starting from the 60s of the last century, is the search for the song that is transformed into a melody. The word corresponds to the song that is born before things and is not a metaphor, and the melody corresponds to the spirit that expresses the substratum of the word. That is why the word bears the echo of the melody which is embodied in things, “fills the universe with life”, jingles in the depths of the melody that lives forever, like the instant in cosmic peace. Therefore, the poet’s word has an ontological substratum that seeks the purity of the poetics and the melody. The loss of the word is therefore the loss of the melody, and the loss of the melody is the destruction of the word, the elimination of the meaning that is probably the loss of life. Consequently, the poet’s reliance is the word that is reborn within the melody, lives with it, is resurrected, as below, above. But the melody is above, the word is below.

The substratum of the song, then, descends from the top down, embodying the word that radiates the meaning of existence. Davoyan’s “Requiem”, which sounds like a melody, mourns the song and the loss of the word. Figuratively speaking, it is like the mystery of the cross that descends from the top down as a melody to connect the word with the upper sphere. And below strives up to sound like its
melody. Thus, in the poem “Requiem”, Davoyan is looking for the prototype of the word, the soul, the antecedent song, which contemporaries call poetry. The tragedy and tragical, however, lies there that the distorted song, like a tortured woman like a ghost, wanders from heaven to earth as a pillar of light leading to Golgotha, looking for itself in chaos. That is why God has become a probable god, a probablespirit, like a ghost of a true song. But our spirit struggles. The yearning for the song has made us sick. But the roads do not save us, though our souls sing the song of the road. A faithless nomad, strange and horrific, appears on our way again and says, “Your song is sung”. Not only the person but also the song is a martyr that has been persecuted as much as our way has persecuted us again.



Anna S. Mikoyan
French-Armenian writer Z. Vorbouni having psychological education reflected the theses of Freudism in his fiction. In his opinion, psychology is the only way to discover the truths of life. The author confessed many times that the theory of the psychologist Z. Freud had had a big effect on his creative thinking. In this article we examined the symbols of dreams, pointed out by Freud, that are reflected in Z. Vorbouni’s fiction.

The author, being a follower of Freudism and at an early stage of literary life adhering to the surrealist literary stream, which is also based on Freud’s psychoanalysis, paid much importance on dream study. He published his dreams and their interpretations. He often wrote literary works based on the plots of those dreams. Vorbouni also published the interpretations of some of his dreams. By the confession of the writer, he saw the difficult solutions of his novels in a dream and wrote down. In general, while writing he closed his eyes and “dreamed” the adventures of his characters.

That is the reason why in Vorbouni’s fiction are found almost all the symbols highlighted by Freud. Those symbols have sexual character. Vorbouni often mentioned that the issue of gender and sexuality is essential in his fiction. Mainly the symbols of female sexuality dominate, as women have a dominant position in Vorbouni’s fiction. The following female symbols are displayed: from geographical-spatial units there are street, field, meadow, sea, garden, from buildings there are church, bell tower, ship, tunnel, room, from animals there are helix, crayfish, silkworm, turtle, from concave objects there are costrel, bottle, from clothes there is lingerie. The flower and some fruits symbolize woman’s genitals. There is also a line of activities associated with sexual activities, such as playing, dancing and so on.


On the occasion of the 185th birth anniversary


Petros A. Demirchyan-Doctor of Sciences in Philology
Raffi (Hakob Melik-Hakobyan) is one of the prominent Armenian writers whose fate was closely connected with the fate of the Motherland, and for the sake of the Motherland and the people, his literary and civil heroism paved the shortest path to immortality.

Indeed, the large-scale activities of Raffi and his erudition are surprising. He was a great novelist, warlike publicist, progressive thinker, patriotic figure.

Sincere interest in the historical fate of the people, high patriotic feelings forced the writer to look for new ways to deal with forces that impede the development of people and society. To this end, he got acquainted with the sociopolitical, philosophical and aesthetic views of European and Russian progressive thinkers Voltaire, Feuerbach, Rousseau, Belinsky, Dobrolubov and Chernyshevsky, inherited the creative principles of folk literature of H. Abovyan.

The ideological and creative flight that Raffi made, from the ideology of enlightenment to romanticism, to the greatest ideals of the true freedom of peoples, deserves deep respect and appreciation. This is the reason for the great aesthetic, national, social and historical value of the heritage of the great writer. His talented books “Samvel”, “David Bek”, “Sparks”, “Golden Rooster” and others are an encyclopedia of the historical life of the Armenian people, a school for the education of freedom and patriotism.

Raffi considered the problems of the Homeland and the people in his works based on the principles of historicism and national, including linguistic, unity.

Raffi’s highly artistic works were considered by many in the wider context of world literature of his time. Back in 1913, on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the death of Raffi, Daniel Varuzhan wrote: “Raffi became the father of Armenian novelism. Our Scott, if you like, who was able to vividly invoke the past and prophesy about the future”.

A. Chopanyan also believed that some of Raffi’s works, such as “Samvel”, “The Fool” and others, could be presented to a foreign reader “and receive a warm welcome.” Moreover, with some reservations, he put the name of Raffi next to the names of Dickens, Balzac, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy.

Concerning some characters and episodes of Raffi’s novels, parallels also arise with the works of Shakespeare and Dostoevsky (“Richard III”, “The Brothers Karamazov”).

Of course, all this was not accidental. The basis for the abovementioned statements is provided by the work of Raffi himself, when considering it not only from the point of view of national, but also universal ideas, as well as from the point of view of the level of creative thinking of the writer.


(In Hovh. Tumanyan’s publicity)


Sergey A. Aghajanyan
The article presents an analysis of the observations on the Armenian identity in one of the most important parts of Hovh. Tumanyan’s literary heritage – in publicity.

The study consists of three main parts and summarizing conclusions.
The first part briefly reviews the main content and stylistic features of Hovh. Tumanyan’s publicity. It is pointed out that the key issue of that publicity is the revelation of the defects characteristic of the Armenian identity and their causes, the mentioning of the means of overcoming them. It is also shown that the sociological professionalism, honest and sincere patriotism of the author is evident in them, even in line with present-day standards, which his contemporaries did not always correctly understand and appreciate.

The second part of the study illustrates and explains the socio-political circumstances by which acknowledgement Hovh. Tumanyan became an active figure of literary and public life, serving it also with his unique identity of a writer. His active civic behavior also manifested itself in publicity not only as a formed worldview, a complex set of raised issues, but also a publicistic style and vocabulary. In this sense the objectivity and debatableness, being brief but at the same time subtstantive, often also imagery is inherent to his articles, etc.

The most extensive part of the article is the third one (“The Defects of the Armenian Identity and Their Causes”), in which the Tumanyan observations of the national identity are presented in three groups: the collective identity of the Armenian, the identity of the Armenian people, the identity of the Armenian intellectual. In all three cases, they are shown by Hovh. Tumanyan with differentiated assessments and qualifications, persuasive reasoning of the defects, the proposed solutions being conditioned with the author’s worldview. The historical and anthropological observations of the great intellectual are emphasized in the study, especially because they show the sociological depth of his mind and the generalizing power of the formed truths.

In the Tumanyan observations of the Armenian identity there are many characteristics and definitions worth of wise mind that are the result of both historical experience, and the wonderful knowledge of the vital realities and human descriptions of his time. Particularly with the latter circumstance is conditioned my reflection on the theoretical problems of retrospective evaluation of the national identity and historical experience, since they have not been ignored as well in Hovh. Tumanyan’s observations. The optimism about the future of the Armenian people expressed in the author’s publicity and its utopian manifestation are not neglected in the article, too.

The study concludes with resumptive conclusions that emphasize the relevance of Hovh. Tumanyan’s observations on national identity in our day as well, which should give rise to serious reflections for the people on the road to independence, especially for intellectuals.


From Hakob Paronyan to John Tolkien 


Albert A. Makaryan, Astghik V. Soghoyan
The periodical “Theatre: Friend to Children” (1876-1878, Constantinople) has its unique place in the context of H. Paronyan’s literary heritage. At first glance by contradicting to the latter’s perception of worldview, that is, comic and not being fitted into the widespread definition of pattern of “satiric author” Paronyan’s literary works for children supplement Paronyan’s satire and give them new emphasis and shades: if laughter is the ruthless mean for criticising the despicable features of the society, then the advice written in fatherly language educates the future society by eradicating those condemnable things just at the moment of their emergence.

The primary principal adopted by Paronyan is not to decieve children. Lie is the most criticised and condemned sin in the context of the author’s literary heritage for children, and the writer chosses the road of not decieving which is also expressed in the genre system of literary works published in the periodical: the prefered genre of Paronyan is realistic creation.

In the structure of the periodical the magic gets negative shade and meaning. In his periodical the great satirist gives place only to two fairy tales (“Red Varduk” and “The Ring of Gyges”) by trying to break the children’s faith in magic through them. He not only just presents those works but also tries to show logically the impossibility of the events described in them: the wolf can’t speak like man and the ring of invisibility doesn’t exist.

In the article the work “The Ring of Gyges” is analysed in the realationship of source-reproduction: this small work is a peculiar cultivation of the myth about Gyges based on versions by Plato and Herodotus. If the latters had referred to the myth from the perspective of history and philosophy, then the Armenian author has worked it out as a work for children adapting it to the worldview of the children. It is noteworthy that years after the reproduction by Paronyan the English writer J. R. R. Tolkien has put the same myth at the basis of his masterpieces, i.e., novels “The Hobbit” and “The Lord of the Rings” by creating his works on the motive of the found ring of invisibility. The article observes the worked out version by Paronyan also in the context of parallels with those works.


Bibliography as straight line


Suren D. Danielyan

Key words – bibliography, Hakob Oshakan, Vahe Oshakan, Marc Nichanian, Artashes Der-Khachadourian, bibliographical data, criticism, press, narrative, tale, novel, criticism, mainstream of European mind.

The comprising of the Western Armenian great writer Oshakan’s bibliography had a long and hard way, that began since 1946s of the last century, when the writer was alive and interested in estimating his works. Our attention is focused on his collection “Qaghhanq” (“Chosen works”) (1946). After many years of bibliographical work Oshakan got a chance to overpass his literature and memorandum from merely personal circle to all European critical principals of his time. Since 30s Oshakan got acknowledged as a theorist and promoted Armenian literature all the way up to the level of world literature.

From this perspective Artashes Der-Khachadourian’s and Marc Nichanian’s bibliographical work (1999) is prominent and retains our attention as their analysis can be evaluated as remarkable literary piece in the bibliography of Armenian Literature.

In this article we have tried to show the main tendencies of the writer’s perception that brought to an ultimate conclusion: we are on the verge of a necessity for the compilation of new bibliography.



Astghik V. Soghoyan

Key words – lyric-epic plot, dialogue, narration, narrator, polyphony, Aghasi, action-event, perception, focusing, time contex.

The article is dedicated to the study of the narrative parts of the poem by Khachatur Abovyan “The Play of Aghasi”. It touches upon the plot of the work, that is, lyrical monologue and actions enclosed in feelings that are expressed through dialogues. The poem is constructed by the principle of polyphony: the only accomplished action is carried out by the lyrical hero Aghasi through his dialogue with the mountain Masis (Ararat), in the scope of his perceptions such accomplished actions are also taking place around other characters who take up the thread of narration and begin telling different events. Within this hierarchic structure in the words of the literary hero the words uttered by others are originating and thus the five-leveled narrations are created.

The primary aim of this article is to reveal the relationship between those voices, to study the characters of the narrators, hierarchy, the classification of their narrations, time context and perception.


A Literary Sketch


Azat K. Yeghiazaryan

Key words – Isahakyan, Lermontov, Al. Blok, Armenian poetry, Russian poetry, translation, loos translation, free adaptation, romanticism, death, dream.

The article studies the three developments of the same poetic plot,that is, the death of a soldier or freedom fighter in the battlefield. In his time Lermontov wrote his famous poem “The Dream” , that tells about how a dying soldier in Daghestan sees a dream about his homeland and the woman , who thinks about him. Later the poem was shifted into Armenian by Isahakyan , but here the concrete details were changed by Armenian realities. In his work an Armenian freedom fighter,i.e. a fighter for the liberation of Armenia is dying. He died in his motherland – in the valley of Salno. He sees another dream, that is, the liberated Armenia. In those dreams the national colourfulness of two poems is clearly perceived. Later the shift done by Ishakyan was translated into Russian by Alexander Blok , who highly valued Isahakyan’s literary activity. Actually the poetic plot of Lermontov came back to Russia in the form of interpretation done by Isahakyan. But this wasn’t strangely enough perceived both by Blok and literary critics.


In the cotext of references to the doctrine of psychophysics by Wilhelm Wundt


Aram G. Alexanyan

Key words – Levon Shant, Hovh. Tumanyan, wayward, pantheism, evolution, life as a spiritual reality, the ideal of Great life, activity; universal life creation, collective will.

Biophilosophy of Levon Shant and Hovh. Tumanyan has never become a separate theme for investigation by revealing the philosophical imprint of their worldview. This issue was partly touched upon in the written monographs and articles but has never been studied completely and thoroughly. Some reasearchers have pointed out that Shant had been the student of Wilhelm Wundt, but his scientific and literary heritage was never considered in the cotext of the doctrine of the German philosopher.

Moreover, the literary heritage of Hovh. Tumanian was evaluated in the field of studies devoted to him by value-based forms deriving from Soviet ideology (realism, the expresser of social protest, writer of village life, the singer of the nation’s aims, hopes and feelings, popularity and so on). To this was added the irrelevan and simplified apologetics, that is, the praise that flooded the field of studies devoted to Tumanyan. We believe that both the biophilosophy and litearary heritage of Shant and Tumanyan do need profound and comprehensive specialized study.

The aim of combined study of the biophilosophy of Levon Shant and Hovhannes Tumanya carried out in the article is to completely outline, as much as possible, the cultural transformation of Wundt’s doctrine into the litearary heritage of Armenian thinkers

The reference to the field of studies devoted to Shant, in essence, is intended to revise its relations with Nietzsche, symbolists, the precise questionings of the time and to propose an effective research method for examining his works.

The perceptions of Hovh. Tumanyan deriving from Wundt’s doctrine also have fundamental nature (a/ theory of evolution; b/ the necessity of perceiving the nations’ psychology; c/ classification of the world as a spiritual relity; e/ universal unity of mankind and ideals and so on).

To this geographical determinism and cultural-historical principle is added.



Jenia A. Kalantaryan

Key words – imaginary; fictional spaces; cultural tradition; influence and individuality; autobiography; village prose, city prose; style, ideological direction; art of the narrative.

The article discusses metamorphoses of the tradition of creating imaginary fictional space (Yoknapatawpha, Macondo, Tsmakut) inthe prose of VahagnGrigoryan. It is shown that byobserving certain patterns, through the means of the ideological direction of his inquiry, peculiarity of his art of the narrative and particularity of style, he creates original prose that advantageously differs from the ones typical forprevious writers, as well as,distinguishes his work in the framework ofthe current Armenian literary landscape.