Artak S. Sargsyan
Key words – Countries of Nairi, country of Kuti, country of Šubari, battle of Nihriya, Katmuhi (Kadmian Tsavdek), Alzi-Agdznik, Teburzi-Dersim, Hayasa-Azzi, mountains of Muzur, basin of the Euphrates, Makan (Magnana, Machkan), Upper Sea, MusruArinni (Miյas, Arin).
The article explored the route of the campaign of Aššur king Tukulti-Ninurta I, in the first year of his rule, on Kuti, Šubari and Nairi. As a result, it was found that the Assyrian army reached Korduk, through the basin of the Great Zab or the Tigris, and captured the Kutians countries Ukumani (surroundings of Komana and Gefshe), Mehri (Mehri Nar), Šarnida (Shirnak or Shahidinan), Elհunia (Eruh) and Babհi (area of Tigers merger). Then the army of Aššur passed the Šubarians countries Katmuhi (Kadmian Tsavdek), Kašiiari mountainous region (Tour-Abdin), Mummi (Maymunik), Bušše (Bsherik), Alzi (Agdznik), Madani (Maden), Surra (Siri, between Maden and Balu ), Nihani (Nexri, north-east of Balu), Alaia (Alevor, north-east of Hozat), Teburzi (Dersim), Purulumzi (in the basins of the Pahin and Mzur rivers)) and captured the great sanctuary Purulumzi (possibly Kamah). Then the Assyrians reached the Upper Euphrates, between Kamah and Erznka, and entered into Nairi. There they faced 40 (43) kings of Nairi, reached the southern border of the country Makan (comparable to ant. Magnana, mod. Machkan), located on the shores of the Upper Sea (Black Sea) – between Trabzon and Gyumushkhane. In the country of Nairi, the Assyrians also occupied the Azalzi (probably Ariza-Eriza-Erznka) and Šepardi countries. On the way back, they probably crossed the Euphrates near Tommisa, entered Kommagene, captured about thirty thousand Hittite soldiers and returned to Assyria. It is obvious that the Assyrians, in this early period, under the “countries of Nairi” meant the territory of Hayasa-Azzi, known from Hittite sources, located in the south of the East-Pontian mountains, towards Mzura, Pahin, Palu and Agdznik. King Aššur on the path of the parokha gave at least five major battles-the first, in the mountains of Iauri (on the southern slopes of Korduk), against the allied forces of the kutians, the second against Alzi, and the allied forces of the Šubarian kings (somewhere in Agdznik, north-west or west of Bsherik, between him and Maden). The third major battle took place near Nihriya, probably on Nfrkert or on the right bank of the Aratsani, north-east of Balu (near Nexri): The fourth battle took place against the allied forces of Nairi, in the Upper Euphrates basin, probably after overcoming the mountains of Mndzur, possibly, near Erznka. The fifth collision occurred again with the Hittites, on the right bank of the Euphrates, probably in the Kommagene area.
This unprecedented Assyrian invasion had great military-political and economic significance. Tukulti-Ninurta I temporarily controlled the districts of Korduk, Moks (Musru-Arinni), Arghana-Maden, Dersim and, possibly, Gumushkaneterritory with rich construction materials and metal mines.