Category Archives: DEBATES


According to the tale­novel by Mkrtich Sargsyan “Nazar the Brave”


Sergey A. Aghajanyan

This article is the third one in a series of studies devoted to the phenomenon of artistic embodiment of the image “Nazar the Brave.” In this article it comes to a fairy tale-novel of Mkrtich Sargsyan “Nazar the Brave” (1980). The author has combined the main observations that were in scientific papers of philological bias and added his own comments. Cultural aspect of the study was used in order to comment on the material comprising the circumstances, the idea of creating an allegorical novel, caused especially by the Soviet experience


Based on H. Tumanyan’s tale of the same name


Sergey A. Aghajanyan
The article is an attempt to interpret newly the famous tale of H. Tumanyan «Nazar the Brave». To make the differences between the new interpretation and the one formed during the past decades as clear as possible, the author referred in details to the all fragments of the tale. The new analysis of the work has been done with the combination of methodological, as well as literary and culturological approaches. The research has several axes: the protagonist – Nazar, his co-existential environment and the nature of interrelations of these two. In the end of the article you will find the clarifications concerning the nature and reasons of unacceptable approaches in the analyses of the tale “Nazar the Brave”.


Hovhannes G. Khorikyan

The examination of the administrative- political situation of Achaemenid Persia’s Cilician satrapy is significant not only for the history of that country, but also for the specification of the Satrapic Armenia’s territory and its southern- western boundaries, which have been incorrectly interpreted without any exception in specialized literature.

The multisided study of the primary sources shows that the Cilician satrapy was not an administrative constant unit, and its territory has been subjected to administrative changes by the Achaemenid Court. Despite its small territory Cilician satrapy had a big military importance for Achaemenids, and that situation did not change during the whole period of existence of Achaemenid Persia.

The examination shows that Cilician satrapy has never reached Melitene in north-eastern part, as the future country called Commagene belonged to Satrapic Armenia.


An attempt to examine North-western part and boundary lines


Armen H. Gharagyozyan
Owing to the observations of the Armenian plateau’s ethno-geographic environment, it is confirmed that Achaemenid Empire’s XVIII satrapy was formed with Tchorokh basin from the beginning of the VI century. The etymology of ethnic names of the tribes inhabiting that territory indicates their Indo-European – Armenian descent. Though, in the first half of the II century it was obvious that Tchorokh basin was populated by Armenians.

As a result of Armenian plateau’s ethno-geographic observation it was discovered that the provisional name of the lake Van was Aghi tsov, which meaned the Sea of Sun or God Sun’s sea. The same meaning is conspicuous also in the name Aghtamar and is derived from the provisional version Alde of mythological name Halde.

The lake Urmia was perceived through its color characteristics as blue, clear sky or heavenly plait, celestial gift and vivifying song, as well as the name Sevan of the lake-name Geghama tsov.


Babken H. Harutyunyan
The great historiographer Movses Khorenatsi (Moses of Chorene) became immortal handing down to the verdict of posterity his unique “History of Armenia”, which is known with its three books according to the manuscripts and ends with the author’s “Lament”.

Thought judging by some announcements of Tovma Artsruni, it can be supposed that Movses Khorenatsi’s “History of Armenia” has had the Fourth book, which not only Tovma Artsruni was acquainted with but also some medieval authors.

The historians of blessed memory such as Ghevond Alishan, H. Karenyan, M. Emin, Khoren Stepane, G. Ter-Mkrtchyan, B. Gevorgyan (Tscughuryan) of Vagharshapat, St. Malkhasyants, Hrant Armen, N. Poghosyan, V. Vardanyan, Artashes Matevosyan and others also referred to the question of Movses Khorenatsi’s Fourth book, and one part of them accepts its eistence while the others deny it strictly assuming that it had rather a character of enclosures, the latter idea was assiduously substantiated especially by Artashes Matevosyan.

An attempt to show up the existence of Movses Khorenati’s Fourth book is made in this article, basing on the affirmations of Tovma Artsruni and tohers, and logical thought.



Hovhannes G. Khorikyan
The study of the location of the country of Sakā and the Sacae in general in specialized literature has given rise to much disagreement. However, a comprehensive study of old sources shows that the country of Sakā of Achaemenid Persia corresponds to the country of the Sacae mentioned in the XV Satrapy. By initially being included in the territorial settlement of Sakā-haumavargā, the territorial settlement of Sakā was later included also in Sakā-tigraxaudā, found in the country of Sakā. Therefore, on the Behistun inscription, the country of Sakā and the Sacae in Herodotus’ XV Satrapy, in general, represent the haumavargā and tigraxaudā Sacae, who were found adjacent to each other, and reflected in the geographical concept, «the Scythians who are beyond Sogdians.»



Armen H. Gharagyozyan
There have been many conflicting and contradictory points of view in academic literature regarding one of the most remarkable characters in Armenian mythology, Tork Angegh (about the deprecatory nature of the Turkish ethnic name of Tork/Turk). This study shows that the depiction of Tork Angeghya (Angegh – Ugly) had a positive function and reflected the meaning of beauty. It is noteworthy that in Armenian, the Sun’s beautiful name is connected first and foremost with the notion of light. Thereby, Angeghya-Ugly meant heavenly lamp, lantern, light (at the foundation, Sun). It is obvious that the names Tork and Turk and their Asian parallels originated from the Indoeuropean sun god Tor’s (Tur or Dur) mythological name. At the same time, the perception of Tork/Turk as a god brings one to the conclusion that Tork the Ugly, in his composition meant the god of heavenly light. In this case, the semantic transfer of Tork the Ugly = Ara the Beautiful is obvious.

In this way, Tork the Ugly is presented as a heavenly light dominator, giver, distributor, grantor; at the same time the patron of crafts and tillers and the god of fertility. He was also the most-abled, the bearer of power and strength, always the winner, fierce, the diety of lightening and thunder.


In Light of a New Examination


Ashot. N. Hayruni

The article presents and elucidates in a detailed manner Armenia’s and the Armenian people’s more than half-century mutual relationship with Dr. Paul Rohrbach, a famous German scientist, publicist, social and political figure, traveler, and journalist. Along with the detailed analysis of the viewpoints put forward by Rohrbach regarding Armenia’s present and future and the mission of the Armenian people with regard to the development of the East, the direction and results of his pro-Armenian activities are also closely analyzed. Simultaneously, the rooted misunderstanding of Rohrbach in Armenian historiography is examined and re-evaluated in light of a new examination. In the article, Paul Rohrbach as a prolific publicist and public figure who was preoccupied with Armenian issues is underscored as is necessity for the academic study of his literary heritage.


Issues of the State Apparatus and Economic Reforms


Merujan V. Mikaelyan

To this day, there is a false perception among state and political circles in Armenia that the Third Republic of Armenia is still very young and inexperienced. Thereby, the serious shortcomings that exist in the sphere of state building and the economy are conditioned by that reality.

More importantly, inspiring this position further is that more time is required for our statehood to mature and be in a position to confront all the foreign and domestic challenges facing it and to resolve issues related to a sufficient standard of living, the respect for human rights, the protection of social justice, a civilized political culture, free competition and the issue of establishing a state apparatus based on knowledge. Such a fundamental mentality postulates that it could not have been possible in a 20 year time period to reach more qualitative accomplishments, in particular, taking into consideration the Karabakh Issue, the geopolitical position of the country, the limited natural resources and the centuries-long absence of statehood. We are convinced that this is not the position of responsible, capable and honest political leaders regarding the fate of the country, but rather the attempt at hiding their own mistakes and shortcomings. This is dangerous because it condemns the country to severely modest accomplishments, acquiescence and to the disillusionment and weakening of the entire nation. Certainly, a large part of these factors are a limiting influence on a country’s development.

However, this publication highlights the examples of other countries where natural resources or geopolitical location are not decisive factors for development. Proper political structuring and the presence of an efficient state apparatus are decisive. An efficiently structured state apparatus is completely able to compensate the influence of limiting factors as stated above. And when there are rich natural resources and favorable conditions, an inefficient state apparatus cannot save people from poverty, inefficiency and autocracy. It is exactly in this issue that our leaders have failed. An efficient and quality state apparatus has not been formed in Armenia due to an absence of information and placing personal and group interests above pan-national interests. It is formed incorrectly in an institutional sense and as a result, the potential of its personnel is insufficient. As the example of other countries illustrate, there are clear arguments which attest to the fact that 20 years is entirely enough time to create a high quality state apparatus. The examples of those countries that had experienced war and transformations in their social systems, illustrate that working sensibly during that time period is entirely sufficient to create a mature state governing system and is even able to thoroughly cure corruption that is deeply entrenched in those societies, and formulate a new, just and an accomplished culture. As a result of an absence of professionalism and the existence of self-interest, during the past 20 years, political leaders and civil servants, in conditions of a defective, unjust and incomplete state apparatus, have not properly utilized the capacity of the Diaspora, the unity of the pan-national potential, the great chances rendered by its geopolitical position and the high individual ability of our people. Simply put, our political leaders and the state apparatus until today have not had sufficient abilities to understand, evaluate and utilize this great potential.

Twenty years is an extremely long period of time to have undertaken great projects. And we are still in a tumultuous stage – the small and medium-sized businesses, who, subjected to the oppression of monopolies have been pushed out, the all-embracing corruption which has established an interest-pursuing society; has made big business the enemy of society; and transformed the state apparatus into an apparatus of injustice. In terms of democracy, free competition, and social justice and in terms of serving the demands of the empowerment of the nation and the state, Armenia’s state apparatus has completely failed.

Aside from different paths and tools to untie this complex knot, the complete renewal of the state apparatus and an innovative restructuring of the economy will have decisive importance. The present realities require that we approach these issues outside of standard approaches. A whole grouping of solutions is brought forth in this article, whose realization requires extraordinary measures for authorities; and in case of their inability, on behalf of civil society.



Hovhannes G. Khorikyan

Movses Khorenatsi’s, “History of Armenia” contains information which reflects events and phenomena connected with Armenia in the 6th-4th centuries B.C. The comprehensive investigation of the “History of Armenia” provides the opportunity to make accurate historical-geographical definitions, and clarify its scope. The information provided by Movses Khorenatsi about Hayk and the first Haykides shows that the Armenian Highland, long before the Achaemenides, was mainly inhabited by Armenian tribes. In the article, we conclude that according to Movses Khorenatsi, Armenia till the 6th century B.C. had a large territory and its main territory, according to ancient sources, entered into the structure of the 13th satrapy of Achaemenid Persia. Satrapic Armenia was one of the largest and richest parts of Achaemenid Persia in the 6th-4th centiries B.C.