Robert P. Ghazaryan
Key words – Hukkana, Suppiluliuma, Hayasa, Hatti, agreement, Mary, Tudhaliya, Mitanni, Hatti King, diplomacy, border security, an ally, Hattusa.
During the reign of the king of Hatti Suppiluliuma I, Hatti signed a number of interstate treaties with the rulers of the neighboring and subject countries. Those treaties mainly aimed at ensuring Hatti’s dominant position in the region. Chronologically the treaty Hatti signed with Hukkana is probably the second treaty with Hayasa (Azzi). According to the treaty Hukkana was not to recognize the legitimacy of anyone else’s rule in Hatti except that of Suppiluliuma I, his heir son or other sons and brothers. In return, Suppiluliuma promised to treat Hukkana and his heir the same way. Their sons were to have the same mutual obligation to each other. Both parties undertook to show military support to each other against enemies. They also had to warn about any conspiracy against each other. It can be assumed from the treaty that Suppiluliuma had invited Hukkana to the Hittite count, had his sister married to him, signed a treaty with him after which he sent Hukkana to Hayasa, probably with Hittite troops. This can mean that Hukkana had established himself or was going to establish himself in Hayasa with the Hittite support. Thus, Hukkana had to ensure the safety of the northeastern borders of Hatti for Suppiluliuma to be able to move his army to the south – against Mitanni. Thus, Suppiluliuma I wanted to diplomatically disconnect the countries of the Armenian Highland from Mitanni, the main antagonist of Hatti, and to receive military support from those countries. It can be mentioned that Hukkana’s treaty, being one of the most important treaties of the Ancient Orient, is at the same time the first comparably completely preserved treaty, the oldest diplomatic document of the Armenian history.
Hovhannes G. Khorikyan
Key words – Herodotus, Lycia, Lycians, Xanthos, Satrapy, Politics, Data, Achaemenid Empire, Administrative and Political Changes, Administrative State, «Dynastyc Principate»
Administrative governance of Lycia, part of the First satrapy of the Achaemenid Persia, carried out on a different principle, which differed significantly from the policy that was carried out for other satrapies. In the study of primary sources, it becomes clear that in Lycia there was not any satrapy government. Persian court was establishing military or diplomatic relations with the Lycian cities, of which the most famous was Xanthos – administrativeterritorial center of Lycian dynastic system.
David K. Babayan
Key words – Biblical geopolitics, Armenian highland, Paradise, Bible, Avesta, Quran, Talmud, cradle of human civilization, oldest place of religion formation.
The article reviews the sacral and civilization significance of the Armenian Highland. Mythological, religious and historical narratives and facts related to this location are presented and analyzed. Conclusions are made about the significance of the Armenian Highland from those perspectives in ideological and practical dimensions.
At the boundary of opportunities and challenges
Atom Sh. Margaryan
The Eurasian economic union (EEU) is the high form of integration between member countries aimed towards development of a single market space. It involves not just establishment of a customs union but also agreed upon and common economic policies in certain areas. The Republic of Armenia as a small country is anyhow forced to be a part of this process. The article does not include all the potential risks and benefits of accession to the Eurasian economic union. However, there are pros and cons that are evident at this stage of the process. This is an expanding market, inflationary potential, impact on budget revenues, the labor market, relations with third countries, investment opportunities. Entry into the EEU a good reason for Armenia to rethink their international economic relations: the balance of trade issues, promoting local producers. At the same time, there are so-called governance and institutional risks associated with the administration of the new system, the qualifications and awareness of officials and businesses.
Song of satirist between two spellings
Haroutiun L. Kurkjian
The article presents and identifies a writing published in the early twenties’ soviet-armenian press, as belonging to the talentuous underground satiric author Ler Gamsar. Persecuted, exiled and very soon condemned to silence, Ler Gamsar has somehow, in this satiric page, managed to express his disapproval about the ‘Abeghian’ orthograph reformation imposed to the Armenian language by a soviet governmental decree.
The ‘fatherhood’ of the writing is confirmed by comparison with other preserved samizdat pages of Ler Gamsar, regarding their contents and the humoristic/satiric language tools typical for him.
Garnik A. Harurtunyan
In this article we turn to a brief examination of the Catholicos Hovhannes Odznetci’s (717-728) activity while the process of creating the Armenian Canon Book. The 32 canons added to the Canon Book concern different aspects of social life, as well as the hey presume ‘handling’ of various ritual issues and questions related to teaching principles that could have arisen through the centuries of the Armenian Church History. Beside composing the Armenian Canon Book, Hahvannes Odznetci compuled within one miscellany canon groups of independent and translation character. Each canon group has a list and preface written in front of it. One may learn about all this information in the author’s Colophon. We have also examined the characteristic features of manuscript groups of the miscellany Armenian Canon Book which have come down to our days through more than 200 manuscripts.
According to the talenovel by Mkrtich Sargsyan “Nazar the Brave”
Sergey A. Aghajanyan
This article is the third one in a series of studies devoted to the phenomenon of artistic embodiment of the image “Nazar the Brave.” In this article it comes to a fairy tale-novel of Mkrtich Sargsyan “Nazar the Brave” (1980). The author has combined the main observations that were in scientific papers of philological bias and added his own comments. Cultural aspect of the study was used in order to comment on the material comprising the circumstances, the idea of creating an allegorical novel, caused especially by the Soviet experience
Based on H. Tumanyan’s tale of the same name
Sergey A. Aghajanyan
The article is an attempt to interpret newly the famous tale of H. Tumanyan «Nazar the Brave». To make the differences between the new interpretation and the one formed during the past decades as clear as possible, the author referred in details to the all fragments of the tale. The new analysis of the work has been done with the combination of methodological, as well as literary and culturological approaches. The research has several axes: the protagonist – Nazar, his co-existential environment and the nature of interrelations of these two. In the end of the article you will find the clarifications concerning the nature and reasons of unacceptable approaches in the analyses of the tale “Nazar the Brave”.
Hovhannes G. Khorikyan
The examination of the administrative- political situation of Achaemenid Persia’s Cilician satrapy is significant not only for the history of that country, but also for the specification of the Satrapic Armenia’s territory and its southern- western boundaries, which have been incorrectly interpreted without any exception in specialized literature.
The multisided study of the primary sources shows that the Cilician satrapy was not an administrative constant unit, and its territory has been subjected to administrative changes by the Achaemenid Court. Despite its small territory Cilician satrapy had a big military importance for Achaemenids, and that situation did not change during the whole period of existence of Achaemenid Persia.
The examination shows that Cilician satrapy has never reached Melitene in north-eastern part, as the future country called Commagene belonged to Satrapic Armenia.
An attempt to examine North-western part and boundary lines
Armen H. Gharagyozyan
Owing to the observations of the Armenian plateau’s ethno-geographic environment, it is confirmed that Achaemenid Empire’s XVIII satrapy was formed with Tchorokh basin from the beginning of the VI century. The etymology of ethnic names of the tribes inhabiting that territory indicates their Indo-European – Armenian descent. Though, in the first half of the II century it was obvious that Tchorokh basin was populated by Armenians.
As a result of Armenian plateau’s ethno-geographic observation it was discovered that the provisional name of the lake Van was Aghi tsov, which meaned the Sea of Sun or God Sun’s sea. The same meaning is conspicuous also in the name Aghtamar and is derived from the provisional version Alde of mythological name Halde.
The lake Urmia was perceived through its color characteristics as blue, clear sky or heavenly plait, celestial gift and vivifying song, as well as the name Sevan of the lake-name Geghama tsov.