Category Archives: CORNERSTONES


From Berlin to Sèvres


Samvel A. Poghosyan
The Armenian Issue became a subject of discussion in international diplomacy in the international agreements adopted at the 1878 San Stefano Conference and the Congress of Berlin. Until 1918, the subject of the Armenian Issue was Western Armenia, which bore the country name “Armenia” in international diplomatic documents. This proves that before the declaration of independence of the Republic of Armenia formed in the South Caucasus in 1918, the issue of exercising the rights of the Armenian nation bearing the title of the country of Armenia already had an international political status.

Armenian aspirations were aimed at establishing Armenia’s autonomy, which would eventually lead to independence. And international diplomacy was satisfied with promises of reforms and changes. The geographical borders of Armenia (Western Armenia) were specified in the documents submitted by the Armenian delegation to the Congress of Berlin in 1878, and especially in the May 1895 reform program. The plan presented to the sultan by the great powers on May 11, 1895, clearly marked the borders of Armenia (Western Armenia) within the six vilayets that covered most of the Armenian territories of the Ottoman Empire.

On the eve of World War I, when the task of partitioning the Ottoman Empire began to be on the agenda of the great powers, their diplomatic struggle ended with the signing of a Russian-Turkish agreement on Armenian reforms. On January 26, 1914 (February 8), in Constantinople, the Grand Vizier Said Halim Pasha and the Russian Chargé d’Affaires Kostandin Gulkich signed a Russian-Turkish agreement on Armenian reforms. According to that agreement, Armenia (Western Armenia) was divided into two regions: a) Sebastia, Erzurum, Trabzon and b) Bitlis, Van, Kharberd, Diyarbakir. In other words, Trabzon was added to the six vilayets of Western Armenia.

Armenia’s independence on May 28, 1918, and the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I brought the vision of a United and Independent Armenia to the diplomatic agenda. At the initial stage of the Paris Peace Conference, it was discussed as a “Great Armenia” project, including Armenian Cilicia, but later, in the Treaty of Sèvres signed in 1920, it was turned into a “Little Armenia” project, including most of the provinces of Van, Bitlis and Erzurum, and a part of the province of Trabzon with access to the Black Sea.

On August 10, 1920, in Sèvres suburb of Paris, a peace treaty was signed between the allied states and the Ottoman Empire, which established Armenia’s sovereignty over the mentioned territories, and the decision to determine the final border between the Republic of Armenia and the Ottoman state was left to US President W. Wilson. The Arbitral Award issued by the latter as of November 22, 1920 is still the only legal document clarifying the Armenian-Turkish state border.


Some considerations upon the science examining the politics

Ludvig G. Vardanyan
To distinguish political science as science or discipline it is important to lay down the goals and questions that make it defferent from the other social and humanity disciplines, as well as substantiate its real place in the scientific system.

The political science is complicated by its special subjectof research. In general, social-political science can study the regularities and tendencies of such and such sphere of life as well as its seperate institutions. main issues, facts, phenomena. Thraditionally, the value of the political science is determined by the ability of exploring the cause-effect relationships in the society. That means that these abilities or opinions may become a base and give the opportunity to precieve the repeatability of the events. defining as a result some “objective” and always reproducing forms between politics and life’s other aspects’ inter-dependence, some modes of human behavior, state organization methods and so on.

Political science is examined in this article to wide extent, as a general theory of politics, at the same time it is considered to be a totality to different disciplines, which coheres by the general object of the research. Each scientific sphere or discipline has its own conceptual framework and research tools. Nevertheless two types of knowledge can be differed: empirical and theoretical and each of them has its particular methods of research. It is justified in this article that political science is particular by its nature and may show up also as “empirical” science, which is certainly to be discussed and substantiated in the sequel.



Romik Kh. Kocharyan
This article considers three meanings of the “open hermeneutics” and demonstrates that two aspects of the first meaning are present in Dilthey’s theory in such a way, that the second aspect is in the basis of the first, and, moreover, his conception appears to us as just the embrio of the second meaning, which later was completed by H. G. Gadamer’s conception of philosophical hermeneutics. In Dilthey’s conception the possibility of being of human sciences is self-understood by epistemological inquiry, and his conception of hermeneutics is formulated as the universal methodology of human sciences. The goal of Diltey’s methodological reflection is to understand and interpretively explicate the calling and truth of human sciences. He defined the own subject, experience and method of these sciences, in contrast to natural sciences. In his viewpoint, the goal of human sciences is not the establishing of general laws and concepts, but the understanding and interpretively revealing of the uniqueness of the individual phenomena as such. The subject of understanding is composed of three classes of expressions of life: the first is presented by concepts, judgments, and more complex structures of thought, the second class consists of actions, the third – of expressions of lived experience, the latter is just the preferable subject of understanding, and according to these classes there are elementary and higher forms of understanding.


As the main contradiction of the era


Alexander S. Manasyan-Doctor of Philosophical Sciences
The article discusses the issues of transformation of the social power of an economic man into political power. On this basis, two historical phases of such a transformation are distinguished. The first historical phase is characterized by a direct transformation of the social power of an economic man into a political one, which was characteristic of a slave-owning society and feudalism. In the second phase that began with the era of bourgeois revolutions, the social power of an economic man within the framework of the Western model of the economic system could be transformed into political power indirectly through the parliamentary system. The economic man was in the minority in the total mass of the electorate and naturally feared that the formula “One voter – one vote” might leave him in the minority in parliament. Disputes were fierce in England in the 17th century over issues of universal suffrage between the Independents and the Levellers. Fears were not removed after the parade of bourgeois revolutions in Europe. Technologies were required to overcome the obstacle presented to an economic man by parliamentary democracy. The task became more complicated especially after in the middle of the 19th century political parties appeared on the political arena of Europe – new subjects of power. Over the course of the next century, an economic person solved the problem of legitimizing the seizure of power with various technologies. Now he owns a monopoly in both the economic and political spheres. In the eastern model in the economic system, this monopoly is owned by a political man. Both in the first and in the second model, the source of social evils is the monopoly possession of all power pockets. It is obvious that the true nature of the processes of transformation taking place in the Republic of Armenia cannot be adequately understood outside the context of the analysis of the main contradiction of the era – the contradiction of an economic man and a political man. Otherwise, they will be interpreted and presented as conflicts of individuals, clans and parties without ideology. The article substantiates the idea of dividing the power package between an economic person and a political person, describes a model for such a separation.



Part one. The formation of the Armenian Question


Ruben A. Safrastyan-Academician of NAS RA
Nowadays, various characterizations are given to the Armenian Question. Thus, for instance, it is mentioned that the Armenian Question has undergone changes at the current stage and is a matter of recognizing and condemning the Armenian Genocide. There is another approach, according to which the Armenian Question has two stages;

the first is the stage of recognizing and condemning the Armenian Genocide, and the second is overcoming the consequences of the Genocide, that is, the stage of territorial claims. Proponents of the last viewpoint insist that the Armenians must invest all their efforts to successfully overcome the first stage, that is, to fight only for the recognition and condemnation of the Armenian Genocide, and after having successfully completed it to launch the struggle for the elimination of the consequences of the Genocide.

In our opinion, these viewpoints cannot be guidelines for our further struggle. We believe that, as in the past, today the essence of the Armenian Question has not changed. It is an awareness of the necessity to restore the United Armenian statehood in the Armenian Highland, to recreate Armenia, and to realize appropriate actions towards this direction. It is important to emphasize that the borders of the Armenian Highland and Armenia are not the same, as the borders of the former, as a naturalgeographical environment, are unchanged, yet the borders of Armenia are subject to compression and expansion, as it is a historical-ethnic phenomenon.

In our opinion, though the recognition of the Armenian Genocide is part of the Armenian Question, however, neither does replace it, nor should it be viewed as the first stage of the final solution of the Armenian Question. We think that a simultaneous struggle should be led towards the recognition, condemnation of the Armenian Genocide, and for a just solution to the Armenian Question.

Assessing the results of the first three and a half decades of the internationalization stage of the Armenian Question, it should be emphasized that in 1914 it was possible to achieve a certain result only when it was succeeded in establishing a geopolitical equilibrium between the Great Powers. The equilibrium was established after long negotiations. It was based on the fact that, as Roderick Davison, a well-known American orientalist, once pointed out, none of the negotiating parties – the European powers and Russia, appeared to be the losers, and everyone got what they strived for. However, even that modest step remained on paper, as the Ottoman Empire taking advantage of World War I canceled the treaty.



David V. Gyulzatyan (Vanadzor)
The language sign is signaled and the language is re-awakened in us at the moment of signification, which is still identifiable by inner speech. Signification is a signal, a signal about the existence of the sign, of a total signedness, of the borderlines of the sign-sphere.

The signification (sign-attribution) is the reference of a sign, by the possibility of unit selection, i.e. the freedom allowed by the inner form of the language and its encoding, to an external object. The whole sign-related activity is sign-generation, which is a simultaneous process of language generation and speech generation. Only an unfinished beginning is characteristic of language generation and that beginning is always repeated at the signaling of each speech initiation. A signal is activated immediately before beginning a speech, at least in inner speech, and by the end of the speech, it outlines a domain of signs, called sphere of signals, borrowed from the language system and reflected on itself.

The sphere of signals is susceptible by the language system, by the conceptual field, which is largely situated in, but not limited to it and in whose bounds the signal itself lies dormant as a permanent possibility. The sphere of that which is signified comprises the poles of meaning and significance: without the latter (i.e. significance), there is no existence for the former (i.e. meaning), that which forms meaning is secondary. This function of formation allows significance autonomy, meaningless significance, while “significance-free meaning” is impossible. There is no unsignified meaning because meaning is a constituent part of the sign and there is no sign deprived of significance. The verb “to have” is the common knot of the concepts of “significance” and “meaning”, that is the common attribute of these concepts is their state of activity together with the “I have” signal. Their differentiating attribute is, from the perspective of meaning, passivity, with an additional signal of expressedness, while from the perspective of significance, it is activity, with an additional signal of formedness. The sign characteristic of significance is the doubled state of activity with the same class of possession (I have) and formedness, while the sign characteristic of meaning is the states of activity and passivity with the different classes of possession (I have) and expressedness. Meaning is expressed, significance is not expressed. Meaning has significance, significance can have a meaning. Meaning is expressed: significance can form meaning.

Sign-generation is dependent upon the co-guidance of internal form and encoding. Internal form is the channel through which the river of speech flows forward. The regulator that ensures consistency to this progression of speech flow is the encoding stemming from the language source that initiates a new beginning by pumping “the river” to opening new riverbeds, i.e. to changing the content of the inner form.

Judgment is a reunited concept of subject-predicate that had emerged by the disintegration of a uniform sign, while concept is a judgment subject to disintegration and reunification of a sign. Judgment is a breath-filled concept, a concept is a judgment that is breathless, but still apt to be breathed in.

The immobile proto-mover is in the language system, and only in its hyper-sphere, from which emerges the sign-generation of the language matter. The whole process of sign-generation is the harmonious linkings of consecutively actualizing sign elements in the intertwined domains of conceptual field and the signal sphere. The predicative beginning is in the hyper-sphere of the system, and its descent to speech expanse is the signaling of signification as a linkage of the worlds of language and extra-language.

The dense predicative composition of the hyper-sphere is the predicative linkage of the worlds of language and extra-language. The immobile proto-mover is in the hypersphere of the language system, in the once-unified Է/Est, which is the reflection of the Most High Է/Est upon the language, his existence in the language of which the entire activity of language signification springs forth and reaches its purpose by means of speech.

The Է/Est is the breath of the Most High, His trace, or rather, His protective righthand upon our language…


History of origin and development


Suren A.Manukyan
Today, thirty years after the origin of the genocide studies we can assess the exceptional role it has performed in transforming from a small group of individuals into a field that involves hundreds of scholars and thousands of students, and also is one of the most dynamic and actively growing areas of social sciences.

After the creation of the term “Genocide” by Polish lawyer Rafael Lemkin, this definition was neglected by the scholars, and only a handful of experts continued to use the term in their research. For some time the field of genocide studies was shadowed by the study of the Holocaust, which began to flourish since the mid1960s. In the late 1970s, a group of scholars (L. Kuper, H. Fein, I. Charny, I. Horowitz) began actively to promote the study of genocides and the conference of 1982 in Tel Aviv became visible evidence of the emergence of the discipline.

The end of the Cold War and new genocides that took place in Rwanda and the Balkans drove growing interest to the subject and the development of the field. The search for mechanisms to prevent genocides has become one of the main issues of research, and prevention of genocide became a form of action and public pursuit.

Now genocide is endowed with all the basic attributes of a distinct academic field. Books about genocide are published in the best publishing houses, journals, textbooks, encyclopedias, readers, textbooks bibliographies are appearing permanently, seminars, round tables, conferences, web sites, research centers and international organizations embrace the field. Numerous universities offer courses on this topic. Several theoretical problems are considered, and new approaches are adopted.


Some problems and their possible solutions


Gevorg G. Hakobyan

Key words – democracy, authoritarianism, governor, power, dictatorship, freedom, justice, truth, happiness, control, anarchistic attitude, antipod of truth, distribution of goods, democratic society.

The article presents a number of principled deficiencies in democracy related to justice and truth. The author agrees beforehand that, despite the fundamental shortcomings of democracy, it has been and remains the best form of organizing and managing the society. In this article the auther attempts to find the means and ways by which it is possible to neutralize the deficiencies of democracy. Those means are anarchistic mentality and the demanding position of the members of the democratic society.



Ashot S. Abrahamyan

Key words – sentence, utterance, reality, representation, situation, image, intonationality, referentiality, predicationality, contоur, perspective, index, symbol, icon, diagram.

Speech is the process of utterance production. The sentence, the linguistic basis of speech utterance, includes other linguistic units: sounds, morphemes, words. When they appear in the capacity of sentence components, these units, being the primary carriers of fundamental language processes, that is, phonation, designation and structuration, not only preserve their main properties, but also pass them on to the sentence in which these properties are revealed not through simple repetition, but through absolutely new embodiments, inherent only to sentence. Here the sound combination acquires intonation, referential intention is added to the signification, and the structure becomes predicational (including both grammatical and communicative predications). Intonationality, referentiality and predicationality are most important sentence characteristics and necessary conditions for its formation. Three main aspects of the language are supplemented with them in the sentence: expression – with intonationality, contents – with referentiality, structure – with predicationality. Together they form a joint basis for the transfer from a linguistic unit to its speech usage.

By analogy with the intonational contour of the sentence it is also possible to speak on its referential contour (idea of possible referential scope) and predicational contour (flexible hierarchic combinations of deep and surface predications). Prior to speech realization and still in its “expectation”, intonational, referential and predicational contours exist as generalized features of potential utterances and remain in the sphere of virtuality. For them realization is merely a perspective. Thereby they present themselves as intonational perspective, referential perspective and predicational perspective of the sentence. Actualization of these perspectives takes place through interrelated and simultaneous processes of intonating, referring and predicating.

The word, morpheme and sound pass also their semiotic characteristics on to the sentence. The indexical aspect of the sound, the symbolic aspect of the morpheme, the iconic aspect of the word have twofold manifestations: as features of sentence components and as features of the sentence itself. Indexicality, symbolicity and diagramic iconicity are combined in the sentence, this combination being equal, without the dominance of one over the others. That is the very peculiarity of sentence as a linguistic sign. On these grounds the sentence-utterance can be characterized as an indexical-symbolic-iconic sign.



Romik Kh. Qocharyan,
Anahit R. Jijyan

Key words – social, social science, socially significant, object, need, truth.

The purpose of this research is to reveal the truth-of-being of social science by hermeneutic methodology,perception, critical analysis, and interpretation of the theoretical and practical aspects and components of the whole unity truth of the essenceof the “social science”. The queries of this studyare, first, “What is social scienceasbeing?” or “How does the social scienceexist?”, second, “What is the social science as entity?”, third, “How is the social scienceworking?”, and, fourth, “For what is social science?”. By the suggested queries of the article in the sphere of scientific and particularly social-scientific thought once morethe interesting problems are introduced: to investigate the inner connection of “wisdom” and “science”, in this particular case, of “wisdom” and “social science”.As a result of such researchapproach in scientific knowledge and, namely, in the “social science” appears the possibility to present explicitly the counsel of wisdom. Social science, as such, is called to have openness of its being and hence to the truth of its existence, namely the need and intention to improve social life. Social science in its truth and perspective being chooses and investigates events and deeds by which it is possible to express the genuinely necessary and preferablethingsin human deeds for constructing good-orderly human life. Understanding and to interpreting counsels of wisdomcontained in socially-significant events and deeds of human life is the true calling of social science that was originally inherent to it. The calling of social science addressed to contemporaries and descendants is identical to the calling of reading social-scientific investigation:toreach andcomprehend the wisdom of spiritual-civilized identity, life and culture of human community: in past, present and possible perspective future. The nature of social science or the truth of being-of-social science as such is revealed in the definition of social science. And in this article by revealing and summing up the essential and preferable features of social science through formulas of thought the definitions of social science by its subject are presented.