Category Archives: CULTURE

LEOPARD AS THE SYMBOL OF THE KING – 2017-2

Summary

Sargis G. Petrosyan

Key words – Armenian highland, king, epic hero, leopard, leopard skin, etymology, taboo, anagram, man, morning, the vernal equinox, New Year, offering, arrow, noose, chamois, pictography

The leopard’s mythological image is the famous zoomorphic symbol of the ancient Mideast legendary king which was associated with the leopard and was drawn primarily on the leopard, afterwards in the leopard’s skin. As informed by Movses Khorenatsi, the Midian king Azhdahak, the rival of the Armenian King TigranYervandian (VI c. B.C.), told that he had the following evil dream: in the country of Haykids (i.e. Armenia), on the top of a high mountain (mount Masis – Big Ararat is meant) a beautiful woman (Mother Goddess is meant) gave birth to three godlike heroes, the first of which headed towards the West, riding a lion, the second, on a leopard, headed for the North, and the third attacked Midia, bridling a dragon.

In the Indo-European poetic texts of mythological nature the ancient poets chose the words so as to reproduce the sounds of the heroes’ names or the epithets of the characters the poem (hymn) was dedicated to. In the ancient Armenian poem about the New-year death desire of the Armenian King ArtashesPartev (told by GrigorMagistros) the person of the hero-king as a male-leopard was coded via the anagram. On one of the rock drawings on mount Ukhtasar in Syunik (pic. 3) the hunter is standing on a leopard. He is armed with a bow, arrows and a lasso, that is to say as a neolithic foot hunter – the prototype of the hero-king. His figure/ body is drawn on the central part of the stone and is surrounded by wild she-goats (on the left stone) and he-goats (on the right stone). The drawing represents the motives of the ancient Armenian myth about the ritual new-year hunting of the King-Leopard.

GENRE – 2017-1

Variant reading and complexity of the definition

Summary

Slavi-Avik M. Harutyunyan

Key words – “the philosophical theory of the value”, the genre, the determination, the term, the Socratic method, the sex, the aspect, the value, the content, the logical schemas of T. Monroe, the extensional approach, the intentional approach, the aesthetic valuations, “the utilitarian” art.

In the given article the problems of the conception and the determination of the genre are examined in philosophy, in the sciences of art, culture, and literature. There are two main approaches of the genre determination which are considered: extensional and intentional.

From one hand, it’s an empiric and inductive approach where the author is relying on already existing multiple types of art and he is looking for signs corresponding to those types. On another hand, it’s a theoretical, deductive and an individualizing method thanks to which certain functions of the genre are regarded as a whole unit. Depending on these approaches, which are intertwined in a certain way, the term of genre is characterized by consistency and content which refer to the unified set of significant signs based on which the group of objects stand out, i.e. the volume.

The classification and the division imply the sequential division of some original notion into its kinds, and the kinds are, in their turn, divided into sub-kinds.

Therefore, the classification begins from the analysis of the logical operation of the division by splitting the volume of the generic notion into the unending volumes of the notions of the kinds. However, the operation is done in a way that, the notions of the kinds end up depleting the entire volume of the generic notion.

While performing such an analysis in a generic aspect on a specific historic and cultural material, it becomes clear that the level of the relative “independence” of the art is different depending on the era and, moreover, that “independence” tends to increase. That process of the increasing “independence” starts from boundary diffuseness in the framework of the syncretic primitive culture, it acquires a certain “independence” in the Ancient world and Middle ages up to the significant independence and recognition of its self-value in the era of Renaissance and Illumination, and finally, it reaches the point of “the art for the art”. Thus, the demand of the splitting the notions in a way other than “classical and generic” is rather related to the science development, it is also caused when a specific type of art, aesthetic and culture sciences push their own boundaries. In a chain of four classification problems, the lowest point, according to the author, is the problem of the genres, and the highest point is the differentiation of the arts and “no arts” (that being said, the forms and the products of the human activity related to the arts). All those problems can be considered productive only in the case of consistent and complex analysis because each of those problems has the boundary issue. Nevertheless, each of those classification problems is relatively self-sufficient and has immanent for its own of reflexion. The problem of correlations between various spheres of culture (including art) is first of all examined in philosophy and cultural studies: in philosophy it is studied due to its connection with more generic problems such as the law of being. In cultural sciences it is studied due to its connection with culture and ongoing studies of synthetic character.

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF RAFFY SARKISSIAN’S ARTWORKS – 2016-4

Summary

Shushanik G. Zohrabyan

Key words – Raffy Sarkissian, national roots, sculptures, perception, artistic language, letters, symbols.

To understand Raffi Sarkisian’s art it is important to consider the matters connected with national thinking and expression of artistic language. The titles of his works remind the meaning of thoughts and emotions invested in them. There are key themes in Sarkissian’s artworks: the individual and society, human being and nature, the Armenian Genocide. Bronze sculptures reveal a very spiritual and emotional depth. Branches of trees, plants, roots, leaves, frequently used typical characteristic elements, symbols that help the revelation of image, making an inseparable part of his artistic language. Deeply national sculptures represent the language of the world art, and are a part of this family.

MINIATURE BY MOMIK – 2016-3

In the manuscript Gospel of the Russian State Library (f. 439.23.5)

Summary

Inesa G. Danielyan

Key words – Momik, Armenian miniature, Illuminated Gospel, Russian State Library, Portraits of the Evengelists, Miniature of Gladzor, Orbelian.

The article is devoted to study of the miniatures of Armenian Four Gospels from Russian State Library (f. 439.23.5). The illustration of the manuscript consists of khorans, portraits of the Evangelists, title pages and marginalia. It is unknown when, where and by whom was created the manuscript, because the last pages where usually are given the main information about the manuscript – lost. Article discusses the question of the author of paintings of the Russian State Library’s manuscript. In 1963, Tatiana Izmailova, a prominent scholar, in unpublished description of that manuscript, which is also stored in Russian State Library, it is noted that the artistic decoration of the Four Gospels is close to Gladzor school of Armenian miniature and to the paintings of master Momik. T. Izmailova dated the manuscript to the beginning of the 14th century. Based on stylistic and iconographic study of the miniatures we can confirm that the artist of the Gospel was the famous Armenian medieval master – miniaturist, sculptor and architect Momik. The compositions of miniatures representing the Evangelists, as well as their images and types indicate the relationship between the paintings of Momik’s manuscript of 1302 (Matenadaran, N 6792) and therefore, the Gospel can be dated to the first decade of the 14th century. If we take into account some additional details, we can make assumptions about the identity of the patron of the manuscript. The abundant use of gold in the illustrations, as well as the parchment, on which the manuscript was written, indicates the material well-being of the donor. It is not excluded that the patron of the manuscript was one of the most important member of the noble family Orbelian as master Momik mostly worked under their patronage. The article is devoted to study of the miniatures of Armenian Four Gospels from Russian State Library (f. 439.23.5). The illustration of the manuscript consists of khorans, portraits of the Evangelists, title pages and marginalia. It is unknown when, where and by whom was created the manuscript, because the last pages where usually are given the main information about the manuscript – lost. Article discusses the question of the author of paintings of the Russian State Library՛s manuscript. In 1963, Tatiana Izmailova, a prominent scholar, in unpublished description of that manuscript, which is also stored in Russian State Library, noted that the artistic decoration of the Four Gospels is close to Gladzor school of Armenian miniature and to the paintings of master Momik. T. Izmailova dated the manuscript to the beginning of the 14th century. Based on stylistic and iconographic study of the miniatures we can confirm that the artist of the Gospel was famous Armenian medieval master – miniaturist, sculptor and architect Momik. The compositions of miniatures representing the Evangelists, as well as their images and types indicate the relationship between the paintings of Momik՛s manuscript of 1302 (Matenadaran, N 6792) and therefore, the Gospel can be dated to the first decade of the 14th century. If we take into account some additional details, we can make assumptions about the identity of the patron of the manuscript. The abundant use of gold in the illustrations, as well as the parchment, on which the manuscript was written, indicate the material well-being of the donor. It is not excluded that the patron of the manuscript was one of the most important member of the noble family Orbelian as master Momik mostly worked under their patronage.

THE AREA OF THE TEXT – 2016-2

Part two. Text and external context

Summary

Slavi Avik-M. Harutyunyan

Key words – theatre, cinema, performance, recipient, text, external context, Yuri Lotman, text area, imaginary world, reality, pseudo reality, spectator, mysteries, stage.

The types of mutual relations of text and external context are analyzed in the article. The external context is taking part in the forming of text’s gist process and that’s why its features and any changes within it can affect on the perception and evaluation of the artwork. Parallel to this, the opposite phenomenon is analyzed: how the text in its turn affects the context, participates in its forming process. The texts of various forms of art affect the process of forming of “living environment”, as well as they affect each other. While the problem of “text and external context” is researched, the phenomenon in which the creator of the artwork tries to blur the boarders between the artwork and the external context is also analyzed. The research of the penetration method of real life events into the art is made with the examples of the theatre, the cinema and the fiction literature. And finally, it is shown that the wide penetration of the life into the art causes the boarders between the real world and the imaginary word to become even more blurred. And not only the art becomes the reflection and formulation of the real world but the reality also starts to reflect the art which has a huge influence on the life in the modern mass culture by forming a system with particular esthetic statements and also moral, socio-political and similar standards, a system of ideas and assessments.

THE AREA OF THE TEXT – 2016-1

Types of mutual relations of text and context

Summary

Slavi-Avik M. Harutyunyan

Key words – text, context, cinema text, Yuri Lotman, Mikhail Bakhtin, artwork, specular reflection, Eden, text level, metatext, semiotics, text in text

The importance of the context and text and their influence on the creation of the meaning are thoroughly analyzed in this article. The author researches different levels of inner context and concretizes them on the example of movie, fictional and picturesque text, and also other possible variations. In interrelation with the text, the context transforms into a subsystem, and the change of context brings the change of the text meaning. In case of complex texts several contexts or different levels of contexts are viewed, that is horizontal and vertical levels each of them forming the meaning of the text in its own way. From the perspective of semiotics the phenomenon “text in text” is interpreted on different layers, which complicates the structure of text. Besides, not only the interpenetration of art into the similar type of texts is analyzed, but also the essence of interpenetration of different types of art one into another.

ABOUT THE ART OF CONTEMPORARY ARMENIAN ICONOGRAPHER FROM ROMANIA DEACON HAIK AZARYAN – 2015-4

Summery

Lusine V. Sargsyan

Key words – icon, wall-painting, “Deesis”, Jesus Christ, Mother of God, John Baptist, Saint Anne, iconography, style, Eastern Christian church painting.

This article is devoted to the iconographer Hayk Azaryan’s monumental wall-painting (“Deesis” which decorates the hall of the Diocese of Armenian Apostolic Church in Bucharest) and tempera paintings (three icons of the newbuilt Saint Anne Church in Yerevan: “Mother of God and the Child”, “St. Anne with Mother of God and the Child” and “St. Anne Embracing Mother of God”). These works reveal the author as a talented artist who has the consciousness of the iconographic canons of icons and is faithful to their true traditions. As compared with miniature painting, the art of Icon has its problems, which require new ways of solution from the artist. Painter Azaryan professionally turned miniature sample into monumental or tempera painting. The environment, in which the painter was educated and created his masterpieces up to now, has had a significant impact on his unique style of art, thanks to which his works can be seen in the overall frame of the development of the Eastern Christian religious traditions of iconography. He imports into Armenian contemporary iconography such scenes (such as the images of St. Anne), the traces of which can be observed in the Eastern and Western Christian church paintings, yet it lacks in the Armenian art. H. Azaryan’s art works highlight the parallelism of his works and worldwide Christian art directions and developments. This was the path of Armenian art since the 4th century, which continues until now.

ISSUE OF GENRE IN ART – 2015-3

Criteria and bases of genre identification

Summary

Slavi-Avik Harutyunyan

Key words – Genre, I. Weisfeld, S. Freilich, film, film studies, Y. Lotman, live action, historical film, musical, literary criticism, Periodic table, style, M. Bakhtin

Throughout many historical periods the interest in the issue of film genres has grown and fallen every now and then; hence, film genres and their identification issues are regularly being studied. With this regard, several theoretical approaches to film genres have been touched upon in this article. The author considers the primary genre categorizations drawn up by popular critics viewing genre as a mode of narration, conventionality and as an aspect of form. The theoretical interpretation of the emotional factors regarded as a basis for identifying film genres have been carried out.

The study reveals the major shortcomings of this classification: such as inconsistency, lack of the unified basis and a clear understanding of what can and should be taken into account while identifying.

Yet another approach to film genre creation based on the combined nature of cinematography has also been observed in details. According to this approach, along with the widely used literary principles, the cultural as well as musical features borrowed from fine arts and music, and other media of the world artistic appropriation should be observed.

The author concludes that the problem of film genres cannot be viewed without considering the issue of the style. However, the style and the language of each piece of work of art are always closely interlinked: thus the matter of film language, one of the most crucial and tricky issues in the modern cinematography, is to be considered as well.

YERVAND KOCHAR. PROFOUND OBEDIENCE – 2015-1

Summary

Ruben S. Angaladyan

Key words – Paris, Soviet Armenia, European painting, Paris galleries, surrealism, space painting, sculpture, drawing, national epos, national traditions, large synthesis.

Ruben Angaladyan’s essay is dedicated to Yervand Kochar, who is one of the most original representatives of the Armenian and world art of the 20th century. In his work, the author presents in details the surrealistic paintings of the master created in 1923-1936 in Paris. The author regrets about Kochar’s returning to Soviet Armenia in 1936, when he was already a world famous artist. Despite the fact that in his homeland he created a series of remarkable paintings and carved magnificent sculptures of David of Sasson and Vardan Mamikonyan, but the dictatorship of Stalin did not allow Yervand Kochar to continue and complete his complex synthesis in the sphere of surrealist art.

CULTUROLOGICAL ASPECT OF GENRE STUDIES – 2014-4

According to M. Bakhtin’s and Yu. Tinyanov’s research

Summary

Slavi-Avik Harutyunyan 

The main aspects of the theory of genre studies by Yu. Tinyanov and M. Bakhtin are analyzed in the  article. The conclusions concerning the genre made by the two great theorists are considered to be an acquisition of new literary criticism, comparing with traditional literary criticism and existing theoretical traditional views on genre as such.

A special interpretation is given to primary and secondary genres advanced by M. Bakhtin. The first ones are considered as primary genres, which exist since ancient times and the secondary ones as relatively new phenomena. The concept of chronotope is particularly analyzed within these differentiations as an essential relationship of temporal and spatial relations, which are artistically developed in the literature. The author concludes that the key novelty of Bakhtin is to describe the adventure chronotope in the transformation of space and time and opportunity to move them in space. Considering the theoretical views of Tinyanov about the genre, the author focuses on the two most important factors that are put forward by them in understanding the genre: the historicity and the evolutionism, through which the genre is considered to be a moving phenomenon.