And attampts of its implementation in the First Republic of Armenia
Narine M. Nushervanyan
Key words – community, immigration, Republic of Armenia, community department, supporting unions, diplomatic representatives of the Republic of Armenia, tribute to homeland, Egyptian Armenian Relief Authority, national constitution.
For the first time, the article introduces the concept of “Tribute to Homeland”, the dynamics of its development and its ratification by the Government of the First Republic of Armenia. Its roots go back to Western Armenian National Constitution (1860) and originally was taken as a “National Tax” as a form of obligatory payment and not as chasity.
After the Armenian Genocide, the “National Tax” was transformed into “Tribute to Homeland” aiming to help Armenian refugees, orphans and the First Republic of Armenia. Once again tax collection became mandatory and it was implemented in the Armenian communities to coordinate irregular donations. The Government of the First Republic has ratified the concept of the “Tax for Homeland” with a separate draft, which envisaged the mandatory collection of taxes in the Armenian communities for reconstruction, immigration and support of refugees.
Though the Turkish-Armenian war (1920) and the Sovietization of Armenia prevented the full implementation of these programs, however, it is obvious that the Government of the First Republic has always focused on issues of refugees, dealt with the resettlement of the Armenians and the revival of the country.
Military activities in Caucasus front since July, 1914 up to April 26, 1916
Copy-book 2: since January 1, 1915 up to May 12, 1915
Ruben O. Sahakyan
Key words – Tovmas Nazarbekyan, Khoy, F. Chernozubov, Hakob Zavriyan, St. Bartholomew monastery, Derik, Dilman, Mukhanjik, Yerevan, Igdir, Smbat Boroyan, Andranik, Abdurrezak, Hakob Choloyan, Van, Shatakh, Armenian governorship of Van, Ishkhan, Aram, Vardan, Dro, Hamazasp, Berkri.
In the second copy-book of memoirs by general T. Nazarbekyan the military activities that took place since January 1 up to May 12,1915 are described. From this part of memoirs of the general three main events can be distinguished: 1. the battle of Dilman, 2. the formation of the Ararat regiment and 3. self- defense of Van and the foundation of governorate.
During Dilman battle that took place on April 16 up to April 18, 1915 general T. Nazarbekyan took brilliant victory over Turkish-Kurdish prevailing forces saving the territory of the viceroy of Caucasus from Turkish invasion. It can be stated without exaggeration that the battle of Dilman in its significance is equal to the battle of Sarighamish. It’s not a coincidence that general T. Nazarbekyan was granted St. Georgi’s 4th level award and the French medal “Médaille militaire”, which is less known to the public.
During the battle the Armenian 1 voluntary group headed by Andranik that was carrying out the defense of one of the important defending positions was distinguished.
In his memoirs the general underlines the formation of the Armenian 5th or Ararat regiment that included the 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups. Due to self-sacrifice of the Armenian volunteers it became possible to help the Armenians in Vaspurakan.
T. Nazarbekyan gives rather detailed information about the reasons and proceedings of the self-defense of the Armenians of Van during April-May of 1915, as well as about the formation of Armenian governorate. He proudly states that the Armenians not having enough forces managed to confront the TurkishKurdish forces. The general believed that the guarantee of the victory was the resistance of the Armenian blocks of Van, namely, Aygestan and Kaghakamej, as well as, of the Armenians of the province of Shatakh.
Suren S. Abrahamyan
Key words – Henrik Edoyan, Paul Valerie, the Road, polytheism, language-location, view, poetics, system, time, book, culture.
The article discusses the collection of “Light on the Left” by Henrik Edoyan, evaluates collection’s literary significance in its second cycle, which has started from “Three Days without Time” (2005) collection and continues till now. The main issue of the collection, that author rises, is the question of the book that develops the integrity of Edoyan’s poetical system, as well as the unity of poetics and worldview. Hence, the analyzer not only evaluates Edoyan’s new collection as the formation of historical poetry, but also appreciates Edoyan’s poetry in the modern literary process.
To Armenian Pogroms in Azerbaijan in late 1980s – early 1990s
Narek A. Mkrtchyan Gevorg A. Tshagharyan
Key words – ‘‘The New York Times’’, open letter, Nagorno Karabakh, Sumgait, universal intellectuals, Armenian pogroms, international community, Michel Foucault, Edward Said, genocide, Antonio Gramsci, indifference, ‘‘Circle of Humanity’’.
In the last years of Soviet Union, the humanity faced several genocidal episodes like ethnic cleansings, destruction of cultural heritage of a nation, massacres, pogroms etc. More than seven decades after the Armenian Genocide, the Armenian nation was condemned to become a victim of ethnic cleansing and atrocities planned by the authorities of Soviet Azerbaijan. As a result of international indifference, the Armenian communities of Azerbaijan, particularly in Sumgait (February 27-29, 1988), Kirovabad (November 21-27, 1988) and Baku (January 12-19, 1990) have been subjected to atrocities. The aim of the paper is not the examination of these events, but the representation and study of an open letter signed by the internationally recognized intellectuals of the second half of the XX century. Being a joint initiative of the Helsinki Treaty Watchdog Committee of France and intellectuals from the Collège International de Philosophie, Paris the letter was published in “The New York Times” on July 27, 1990. Unfortunately, the letter had skipped the eyes of wider public in Armenia and abroad. The uniqueness of the letter can be measured by its content and the prominence of the signatories. It is more than obvious that the message of intellectuals was aimed at warning international community that necessary measures should be taken to prevent and save Armenians from another genocide. We translated the material from English into Armenian and provided it with introduction containing information about the signatories of the letter. Among them stand out Jurgen Habermas, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Jacques Derrida, Jean-François Lyotard, Sir Isaiah Berlin, Emmanuel Levinas, Paul Ricoeur, Charles Taylor, Luc Ferry and others. On the other side, the letter is discussed within the context of different theoretical approaches in order to shed light on the nature, position and influence of intellectuals on the world of crises.
Artak S. Sargsyan
Key words – Countries of Nairi, country of Kuti, country of Šubari, battle of Nihriya, Katmuhi (Kadmian Tsavdek), Alzi-Agdznik, Teburzi-Dersim, Hayasa-Azzi, mountains of Muzur, basin of the Euphrates, Makan (Magnana, Machkan), Upper Sea, MusruArinni (Miյas, Arin).
The article explored the route of the campaign of Aššur king Tukulti-Ninurta I, in the first year of his rule, on Kuti, Šubari and Nairi. As a result, it was found that the Assyrian army reached Korduk, through the basin of the Great Zab or the Tigris, and captured the Kutians countries Ukumani (surroundings of Komana and Gefshe), Mehri (Mehri Nar), Šarnida (Shirnak or Shahidinan), Elհunia (Eruh) and Babհi (area of Tigers merger). Then the army of Aššur passed the Šubarians countries Katmuhi (Kadmian Tsavdek), Kašiiari mountainous region (Tour-Abdin), Mummi (Maymunik), Bušše (Bsherik), Alzi (Agdznik), Madani (Maden), Surra (Siri, between Maden and Balu ), Nihani (Nexri, north-east of Balu), Alaia (Alevor, north-east of Hozat), Teburzi (Dersim), Purulumzi (in the basins of the Pahin and Mzur rivers)) and captured the great sanctuary Purulumzi (possibly Kamah). Then the Assyrians reached the Upper Euphrates, between Kamah and Erznka, and entered into Nairi. There they faced 40 (43) kings of Nairi, reached the southern border of the country Makan (comparable to ant. Magnana, mod. Machkan), located on the shores of the Upper Sea (Black Sea) – between Trabzon and Gyumushkhane. In the country of Nairi, the Assyrians also occupied the Azalzi (probably Ariza-Eriza-Erznka) and Šepardi countries. On the way back, they probably crossed the Euphrates near Tommisa, entered Kommagene, captured about thirty thousand Hittite soldiers and returned to Assyria. It is obvious that the Assyrians, in this early period, under the “countries of Nairi” meant the territory of Hayasa-Azzi, known from Hittite sources, located in the south of the East-Pontian mountains, towards Mzura, Pahin, Palu and Agdznik. King Aššur on the path of the parokha gave at least five major battles-the first, in the mountains of Iauri (on the southern slopes of Korduk), against the allied forces of the kutians, the second against Alzi, and the allied forces of the Šubarian kings (somewhere in Agdznik, north-west or west of Bsherik, between him and Maden). The third major battle took place near Nihriya, probably on Nfrkert or on the right bank of the Aratsani, north-east of Balu (near Nexri): The fourth battle took place against the allied forces of Nairi, in the Upper Euphrates basin, probably after overcoming the mountains of Mndzur, possibly, near Erznka. The fifth collision occurred again with the Hittites, on the right bank of the Euphrates, probably in the Kommagene area.
This unprecedented Assyrian invasion had great military-political and economic significance. Tukulti-Ninurta I temporarily controlled the districts of Korduk, Moks (Musru-Arinni), Arghana-Maden, Dersim and, possibly, Gumushkaneterritory with rich construction materials and metal mines.
1940s Madagaskar Plan to Solve the Jewish Issue: A comparative Analysis
Edita G. Gzoyan
Key words – League of Nations, settlement of Armenian Refugees, Yerevan Project, Armenian Genocide, Madagaskar, French colony, Final Solution, Madagascar Plan, resettlement of the Jews.
The League of Nations played an important role in the resettlement of the Armenian refugees and formation of Armenian Diaspora after the Genocide. One of the initiatives of the League was connected with the saving of the Armenian refugees and their resettlement to other parts of the world. The rather interesting project of the Armenian refugees in Madagaskar was elaborated (1925-1926) as an alternative to the so-called Yerevan Project – the resettlement of Armenian refugees in Soviet Armenia. The project of resettlement of the Armenians in Madagaskar was not implemented due to lack of interest among the Armenian refugees and other concerned circles.
Meanwhile, if in 1925-1926 the League of Nations considered the resettlement of Armenians in Madagaskar as salvage to their refugeehood, then in 1940s the Third Reich viewed the transfer of Jews to Madagaskar as an alternative to Final Solution of the European question.
Arman A. Makaryan
Key words – gender upbringing, child – reader, children’s press, images, girls, boys, biological gender, physical differences, role penetrations.
The article is dedicated to the gender study of pictures printed in “Theatre: A Friend to Children”. In the course of the study the children’s periodical is observed as a peculiar semiotic system addressed to children in which the imageunits inform the reader about their models of gender upbringing. The girl and boy characters embodied in the pictures are the examples of self-identification, “ideal heroes” who must be imitated.
The boys are strong, masculine, doing physical jobs and have undertaken the function of protecting the weak ones, while the girls have put on their shoulders the burden of housework and are standing beside the men with dropped heads and in modest posture. In the pictures of the periodical this plot model becomes an acting pattern from which only one hero is deviating, that is, Gevorg who has got “a girl’s function”.
Arsen E. Harutyunyan
Key words – Sisian, museum, cross-stone (khachkar), inscription, gravestone, exhibit, copper utensils, tile, cask (karas).
The History Museum in Sisian of the RA Syunik Province, founded in 1989, has a rich collection presenting the cultural heritage of the region that includes the working tools of the primitive men and the 19th-century samples of applied art. The yard in the front side of the museum decorated with stone obelisks is called Stone Museum (Karadaran). Here petroglyphs, architectural details of the buildings, cross-stones (khachkars), gravestones (mainly ram-shaped) and other objects brought from surrounding villages and archaeological excavations over the years are exhibited. Many of the exhibits of the Museum as well as the outdoor Stone Museum are inscribed. Among them the most prominent are the sarcophagus bearing the name of King Grigor II of Syunik (12th c.), the beautifully sculpted cross-stones (15th-16th cc.) transported from the villages of Angeghakot and Vorotan : they were erected for the salvation of the souls of Tados, Dondish, friar Mkrtich, untimely deceased Shahriar, Khumar, Oghulbek, priest Shmavon and others are especially notable. The inscribed samples of the copper utensils, as well as, the fragments of the inscribed tiles originating from Aghitu (11th-12th centuries) and the cask (karas) with two stamps (1854) are also worth mentioning. The unskillfully made fine printed inscriptions of the tiles testify that still in Medieval Ages the special italic script called “notrgir” was used (cursive). Such samples are also known from Dvin (7th c. AD).
In the Context of Enlightening Paradigm of the Armenian Identity
Nane S. Movsisyan
Key words – historical past, national identity, self-awareness, historical-scientific and philosophical attitudes, Enlightenment paradigm.
The historical past in the project of the Enlightenment of the Armenian identity is viewed from two percpectives: historical-scientific and philosophical. The scientific-historical approach views the historical past from the perspective of development of history and emergence of historical facts. With the help of revival of the uninterrupted events it values national identity and affirms the unique place and role of the Armenian history (religion, language, art and science) in the history of world civilization. From the point of view of philosophy which views the historical past in the light of civilization not for the sake of just depicting certain facts at a certain period of time but to praise the history and assigns a civilizational value to it, and in the contrast to scientific-historical approach discusses historical past from the perspective of evaluation and is not just confirming it chronologically. The Armenian music, language, literature and philosophy are endowed with educational and civilizational capabilities. And the aim of this approach is to revive only those very facts and events which are and can be considered as cornerstones for the development of patriotism and love towards one’s own nation. The philoisophical approach is also guided by the idea of creating national ideals based on historical past.